Ans. A large industrial enterprise can raise capital from the following sources.
1. Equity Shares: Equity shares are the most important source of raising long term capital by a company. They represent the ownership of a company and therefore, the capital raised by issue of these shares is called owner's funds. These shareholders do not get a fixed dividend. They get according to the earnings of the company. They receive what is left after all other claims on the company's income and assets have been settled. They enjoy the reward and also bear the risk of ownership. They have voting rights. Using their voting rights, they get participation in management of the company.
2. Preference Shares: Preference shareholders are called so because they enjoy some preferential rights over equity shares. They get dividend at a fixed rate and dividend is given on these shares before any dividend on equity shares. When company winds up, preference shares are paid before equity shares. Preference shares also have a right to participate in excess profits left after payment being made to equity shares.
They also have a right to participate in the premium at the time of redemption. In lieu of these preferential rights, their voting rights are taken i.e. they are not eligible for voting. Preference shares have some characteristics of equity shares as well as debentures. They are safer investment with stable return from investor's point of view and free from control from owner's point of view.
3. Debentures: Debenture is an acknowledgement by a company that the company has borrowed certain amount from the debenture holder which it promises to pay on a specific date. It is an important source for raising long term debt capital. Debentures bear a fixed rate of interest. In recent times, issue of zero interest debentures has also become popular which do not carry any explicit rate of interest. But they are issued at discount and redeemed at a premium or at par. It is the return on the debenture. Public issue of debentures requires that issue of debentures should be rated by a credit rating agency like CRISIL (Credit Rating and Information Services of India Limited).
4.Loans from Financial Institutions: The government has established many financial institutions like LIC, IDBI, ICICI etc all over the country to provide finance to these organizations. These institutions are established by central and state government both. These institutions provide owned capital as well as borrowed capital for long term and short term requirements. They provide financial and technical advice and consultancy to business firms. Obtaining loan from a financial institution increases goodwill of a company. These sources are available even during depression. Loans can be repaid in easy instalments.
5. Loans from Commercial Banks: Borrowings from banks are an important source of finance to companies. Bank lending is still mainly short term, although medium-term lending is quite common these days. The rate of interest charged on medium-term bank lending to large companies will be a set margin, with the size of the margin depending on the credit standing and risk of the borrower. A loan may have a fixed rate of interest or a variable interest rate, so that the rate of interest charged will be adjusted every three, six, nine or twelve months in line with recent movements in the Base Lending Rate. Short term lending may be in the form of: (i) An overdraft, which a company should keep within a limit set by the bank. Interest is charged (at a variable rate) on the amount by which the company is overdrawn from day to day. (ii) A short-term loan, for up to three years. (iii) Medium-term loans are loans for a period of three to ten years.
6.Retained Earnings: For any company, the amount of earnings retained within the business has a direct impact on the amount of dividends. Profit re-invested as retained earnings is profit that could have been paid as a dividend. The management of many companies believes that retained earnings are funds which do not cost anything, although this is not true. However, it is true that the use of retained earnings as a source of funds does not lead to a payment of cash. In practice, the dividend policy of the company is determined by the directors. From their standpoint, retained earnings are an attractive source of finance because investment projects can be undertaken without involving either the shareholders or any outsiders. The use of retained earnings as opposed to new shares or debentures avoids issue costs. The use of retained earnings avoids the possibility of a change in control resulting from an issue of new shares. Another factor that may be of importance is the financial and taxation position of the company's shareholders. For example, because of consideration of taxation considerations, they would rather make a capital profit (which will only be taxed when shares are sold) than receive current income, then finance through retained earnings would be preferred to other methods.
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