(a) The French philosophers like Voltaire, Rousseau, Montesquieu and. Diderot provided revolutionary ideals and inspired people to fight for their rights. They exposed the inefficiency of the monarch and his government aroused the people to challenge monarchy. (b) Voltaire attacked the Catholic Church. He believed that destiny was in one's hand and not in heaven. His ideas encouraged people to fight against the Church without any guilt. (c) Jean Jacques Rousseau believed that government should be based on the consent of the governed. In his book 'Social Contract' he talks of a contract between the ruler and ruled whereby the ruler is responsible for the happiness of his subjects. Implied in his writings was the belief that men had a right to change their government if they were not satisfied. (d) Montesquieu believed that all powers should not be concentrated in one person's hand. He stressed the principle of separation of powers and individual liberty. (e) Thus emergence of philosophers roused people from inactivity and instilled in them a desire to root out social inequalities and set up a government responsive to their needs.
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