In India, recent estimates show that in 20 states and union territories the poverty ratio is less than the national average. (a) On the other hand, states like Orissa, Bihar, Assam, Tripura and Uttar Pradesh continue to have high poverty ratios. (b) There has been a significant decline in poverty ratios in states of Kerala, Jammu & Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat and West Bengal. (c) States like Punjab and Haryana have succeeded in reducing poverty with the help of growth in agricultural sector. (d) Human resource development in Kerala and land reform measures in West Bengal have helped in reducing poverty.
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