NEET Biology Domestication of animals For enhancement of Food production Horses, Donkey and Mules

Horses, Donkey and Mules

Category : NEET

Horses, Donkeys and Mule

 

(i) Distinguishing Features: The horses (Equus cabalus) are solid- hoofed, non-ruminant quadrupeds with long, pendant mane and tail bearing long hair all over. They are intelligent animals. They learn fast are faithful pets and can adapt to all sorts of climatic conditions.

 

(ii) Feeding: Horses are fed on oats, barley, gram and hay. Common salt is also added to their diet. Green grass may also be given if available.

 

(iii) Breeding: If compared to other animals, horses have a low reproductive rate. Controlled natural mating in horses has been in practice in India for a long time. A high professional skill is required for rearing, training and medical care of race horses.

 

Important breeds of Indian Horses

Name

Regions

1. Kathiawari

Rajasthan and Gujrat

2. Marwari

Rajasthan

3. Bhutia

Punjab and Bhutan

4. Manipuri

North-eastern mountains

5. Spiti

Himachal Pradesh

6. Zanskari

Ladakh

 

 

Donkeys

 

(i) Distinguishing Features: Donkeys are smaller than horses but have larger head, longer pinnae and narrower hoofs. Their mane is erect and tail has a tuft of hair at the tip.

 

(ii) Feeding: The donkeys mainly feed on straw and fodder. They are often let free to graze on the roadside.

 

(iii) Breeding: There are two breeds of donkeys in our country: small, dark grey and large, light grey to almost white. The grey donkey occurs in most parts of the country. The white donkey, also called wild ass, occurs in Rann of Kutch. Donkeys have descended from the wild ass Equus asinus of Abyssinia.


 

 

Mule

 

Mule is the hybrid between male ass (jack) and female horse (mare). It has the stamina of ass and size of horse, but is sterile. Similarly, the cross between male horse (stallion) and female ass is called hinny.

           

Mules are known for their toughness.  Since they are sexually sterile, they have to be produce every time a new.

(i) Feeding: They are fed mainly on green fodder, crushed grams and barley. They are also given salt.

 

(ii) Breeding: Indian army has imported male donkeys from Europe for breeding mules. Army uses tow type of mules: (a) General service type and (b) Mountain artillery type. The latter are firm footed and can carry heavy loads on steep terrain.

 

(iii) Common Disease of Equines: The horses, donkeys and mules suffer from many diseases. They include pink eye or influenza, strangles, tetanus, colic etc.

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Notes - Horses, Donkey and Mules
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