NEET Biology Domestication of animals For enhancement of Food production Pigs

Pigs

Category : NEET

Pigs

 

Pig, also called hog or swine, is an omnivorous, no ruminant, gregarious mammal of genus Sus. All breeds of pigs have descended from the European wild boar sus scrofa or a crossbreed of this and the Asiatic species, S. indicus. The care and management of pigs is called piggery.

 

Pigs are the most prolific breeders and quick growers among the domestic animals. A group of 10 sows (Female hog) and one boar may produce over 160 piglets in a year. Pigs are most useful domestic animals, especially of lower classes of society. They are most economical source of meat and animal fat. Pig meat, in general, is known as pork and the meat obtained from different parts of the body have been given different names, for example bacon obtained from the back and sides and ham from the back of the thigh. Sausages are prepared by fresh minced pork, free form bone and skin. The fat of pig squeezed from the body tissue is termed as lard. Lard is used as a fine cooking medium and in the manufacture of soaps lubricants, greases, candles and water proof materials. The wiry and stiff hairs obtained from the back and neck of the pigs and wild boars are known as bristles. The rough and coarse bristles are generally used for varnish work and painting brushes. The hide is used as leather and pig droppings are a good source of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium for agricultural fields.

 

(i) Feeding of pigs: Indigenous pigs survive through scavenging on kitchen wastes and farm by products and human faeces. Pig keepers raise them on grass, straw roots and grains. As they can feed on human faeces, they serve as secondary host for tape worms.

(ii) Breeds and breeding of pigs: Pig breeding has now started on commercial scale. The improved exotic types, number of which is insignificant is maintained mostly at all the seven Regional Pig Breeding stations of the country. Some breeds of the pigs are given in table.

 

Important Breeds of Pigs

Breeds

Distribution

Native Pigs

1. Desi

Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh

2. Ghori

Manipur, Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh

Exotic pigs

1. Berkshire

U.K.

2. Large White Yorkshire

U.K.

3. Landrace

Switzerland, Denmark

 

(iii) All India Co-ordinated research project: The ICAR initiated an All India Co-ordinated research projects on pigs during the fourth five year plan. The project started functioning early in 1971. The main objective of the projects is to develop suitable breeds using imported stock. The centres where this project is in operation are:

  1. Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnager
  2. Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara,
  3. Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University, Tirupathi
  4. Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Viswa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur.

(vi) Diseases of Pigs: These include swine fever, foot and mouth, swine-pox, swine-plague, anthrax, tuberculosis, infectious dysentery and piglet influenza. General signs of illness are as in sheep and goats.

Other Topics

Notes - Pigs
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