Single, Poly and Liquid Crystals
Category : JEE Main & Advanced
(1) Single crystal : The crystals in which the periodicity of the pattern extends throughout the piece of the crystal are known as single crystals. Single crystals have anisotropic behaviour i.e. their physical properties (like mechanical strength, refractive index, thermal and electrical conductivity) are different along different directions. The small sized single crystals are called mono-crystals.
(2) Poly-crystals : A poly-crystal is the aggregate of the monocrystals whose well developed faces are joined together so that it has isotropic properties. Ceramics are the important illustrations of the poly-crystalline solids.
(3) Liquid crystals : The organic crystalline solid which on heating, to a certain temperature range becomes fluid like but its molecules remain oriented in a particular directions, showing that they retain their anisotropic properties, is called liquid crystal. These crystals are used in a liquid crystal displays (L.C.D.) which are commonly used in electronic watches, clocks and micro-calculators etc.
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