6th Class Science The Living Organisms and their Surrounding Biotic Components

Biotic Components

Category : 6th Class

*         Biotic components


Living organisms in our environment is called its biotic component. Biotic components are dependent on each other for their nutritional needs. The biotic components that produce foods for others are called producer and those are obtaining food from producer directly or indirectly are called consumer. Some organism in our environment obtain food from producer directly, therefore, they are called primary consumer. Some are obtaining food from primary consumer, and hence they are called secondary consumer. Microorganism in our biotic environment is called decomposers.


*            Producer

Green plants are the only biotic component in our environment which produce food for other living organism (non green). Hence, they are called producers. Green plants absorb water and mineral from soil and carbon dioxide from atmosphere and make their food in the presence of sun light. The process in which plant make their own food is called photosynthesis and the mode of nutrition for obtaining the food is called autotrophic mode of nutrition. Plants make glucose and oxygen during the photosynthesis.

Some part of the photosynthesis product i.e. glucose is absorbed by the plant itself for their nutritional need and growth. Some part are stored in the fruits of the plant, which are consumed by the consumer. Consumer and plant breathe in oxygen.


*           Consumer

Living organisms which feed directly or indirectly on the plants are called consumer. A deer feed on plant hence called primary consumer and a lion which feed on deer or deer like animal is called secondary consumer. Living organisms (non-green) which cannot make food for themselves depend on plants for their nutrition. This mode of nutrition in non-green living organism is called heterotrophic mode of nutrition. There are three types of consumers on the basis of their food habit.


Look at the following picture to understand the types of consumer on the basis of their food habits:




*           Decomposers

Some microorganism and non-green plants like mushroom feed dead and decaying elements. They break down dead and decaying elements into small substances. Some part of these broken substance dissolve in soil and some part is released in the atmosphere. Microorganism which break down these dead and decaying elements into small substances is called decomposers. Decomposers play an important role in our environment and improve the fertility of soil.


*            Ecosystem

An ecosystem is constituted of living organism, non-living organism and decomposers. Necessary life supporting elements are used by the living organism. The ecosystem may be in lake, sea and on the earth. The space which is occupied by the living organism is called its habitat. All biotic and abiotic components live together without affecting the existence of others.

This balance in nature is called ecological balance.


Look at the following picture of ecosystem for aquatic animals:






question mark      An eco-system consists of which one of the followings?

(a) Living organism

(b) Non-living organism

(c) Decomposer

(d) All of these

(e) None of these


Answer: (d)



question mark     Which one of the following is the primary consumer?

(a) Plants

(b) Deer

(c) Lion

(d) All of these

(e) None of these           


Answer: (b)


Deer is the primary consumer as it eats plants only. Therefore, option (B) is correct and rest of the options is incorrect.




Living organism in our environment is called biotic component.

Non living things in our environment is called abiotic component.

Biotic components are divided into three parts. Producer, consumer and decomposer.

Decomposers play an important role to clean our environment.

Producers in the ecosystem make their own food in the presence of sunlight.

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