Pollution and Calamities
Category : 5th Class
POLLUTION AND CALAMITIES
Pollution is deterioration of environment due unwanted and undesirable substances present leading to affect health and day to day life.
Unwanted and undesirable substances present in air, water, and soil are pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), lead oxides, smoke dust particles etc.
Contamination of air with harmful gases and substances.
Presence of undesirable substances in the water
Deterioration of soil with harmful chemicals
Unwanted and undesirable sound > 80dB
AIR POLLUTION → CAUSES
Deforestation is the major cause of Air pollution as plants and trees act as natural purifiers.
Volcanic eruptions causes concentration of carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide and sulphur dioxide.
Consequences of air pollution
Effect of air pollution
Methods to minimize the air pollution
Water is universal solvent as it dissolves maximum substances. Due to human activities over, industrialisation and unawareness the smell and quality of water is being compromised which is called water pollution.
Consequence of water pollution
Prevention of water pollution
Excessive unorganized agriculture and non-judicious use of chemical fertilizer, pesticides, weedicide herbicides and insecticide contaminate the soil, which is called soil pollution.
Consequence of soil pollution
(a) Cholera and dysentery are caused when soil pollutant reaches water sources.
(b) Brain and nervous disorder when the pollution disturbs neuromuscular growth and development.
(c) Cancer due to chemical carcinogen due to spray of insecticides.
Step to maintain the quality of soil
NOISE - POLLUTION
It is the loud unwanted and undesired sound. Sound > 80dB (decibel) given unpleasant experience and regarded as noise pollution 90% of noise pollution is due to the noise produced by the motor vehicles.
Some important sound intensity:-
Consequences of noise pollution
Protection form noise pollution
NATURAL CALAMITIES / DISASTER
An earthquake is a sudden shaking of the ground caused by the movements or vibrations deep inside the earth. The earth's upper layer, the crust, is made of large and small plates. The layers of earth under the plates are hot and in a molten state, as the core inside are extremely hot and moving. These movements cause the plates to slide smoothly against each other. These movements can sometimes give rise to earthquake when the ground shakes, houses, building and bridges shake. When it lasts for longer time roads crack, structures shatter and communication system collapse leading to loss of life and property. Earthquake is measured on Richter's scale. People who study earthquake are called seismologist earthquake can be detected with an instrument called seismograph.
Is an opening in earth's surface which allows hot, molten rock ash and gases to escape form below the surface? These burst out of the crest at the top or holes around the sides of the volcano through weak point some volcanoes are formed under the sea. When the lava cools down, the area formed cools like a new island. The barren island is the only active volcano in the Indian subcontinent, located in Andaman and Nicobar Island.
Very high Tidal waves are called tsunami. Tsunami are caused by undersea earthquake or by the sea come rolling towards the shore and causes distraction on the sea there in seconds. These are already high tides and storm wave hit the land and causes severe damage.
Drought are caused by poor rain fall. Land and water bodies dry up because of severe heat. This causes acute shortage of water for agriculture and domestic use. Because of scarcity of water animals and people suffer from lack of food and drinking water.
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