5th Class Science Matter and Materials Matter


Category : 5th Class

*       Introduction


Everything, which we see around us is called the matter. Matter is made up of atoms and atoms are made up of electrons, protons, and neutrons. There are three states of matter, solid, liquid and gas. The properties of solid, liquid and gas states of a same matter are different. The atoms in the solid are tightly packed in comparison to the structure of atoms in liquid and gas. In this chapter, we will study about the properties of different types of matter.


*       Matter

Anything which occupies space and has mass is called matter. Amount of matter present in a body is called the mass of the body. Mass of a body is constant and remains same, even in the space. Volume is the amount of space, which is occupied by the body or an object. Amount of occupied space by an object is called its volume. The whole universe is made up of only two things, matter and energy.



*            Properties of Three States of Matter

Properties Solid Liquid Gas
Mass It has mass It has mass It has mass
Occupy space It occupies space It occupies space It occupies space
Shape It has definite space It takes the shape of container It has no definite space
Intermolecular Distance Very less, molecules tightly packed More than solid, loosely packed molecules Maximum, free to move in any direction
Intermolecular force of attrition Maximum Less than solid Least
Fluidity Does? t flow freely Flows freely Flows freely in all direction
Compressibility Negligible Compressible to some extent Highly compressible



When liquid states of matter is poured                                  Carbon dioxide, a gas produced during a

From one vessel into another, it changes                               chemical reaction, goes up and fills the

Its shape and acquire the shape of the                                   empty balloon. The shows that gases

Container to which it is poured but it                                     occupy space and always goes up

Retains its volume  


*          Molecular Arrangement in Three States of Matter

                                              Force of attraction more

 Intermolecular distance is least

                                             Force of attraction less 

 Intermolecular distance is more than solid

                                             Force of attraction is least

  Intermolecular distance is maximum 


Some substances dissolve in water and some are not dissolved in water. For example, salt, sugar etc. are soluble in water whereas sand, chalk pieces are insoluble in water.


Solute, when dissolves in a liquid, occupies the empty space present between the molecules. If all of the empty space is occupied by solute and no more empty space is left between the solvent molecules, it is called saturated solution i.e. no more solute can be added to a given amount of solvent. If more solute is added, it settles at the bottom.

More solute can be added by heating the saturated solution. Solubility of a solution is increased on increasing the temperature.  


*         Element

Element is the purest substance, which is made up of the same kind of atoms e.g. Hydrogen, Oxygen etc.


*          Compound

Compound is formed when two or more than two elements are combined chemically in a fixed ratio. E.g.  etc.  


*             Mixture

Mixture is just the physical combination of two or more than two substances and not in any fixed ratio. For example air is a mixture. Salad is also a mixture of many fruits and vegetables.


Look at the following picture of the mixture of pulse and water:

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