5th Class Mathematics Roman Numerals Roman Number

Roman Number

Category : 5th Class

ROMAN NUMBER

FUNDAMENTALS

•                  The system of Numeration, developed by Romans is called the Roman numerals system. In Roman numerals system there are seven distinct symbols. viz I, V, X, L, C, D and M.

Roman symbols and their corresponding Hindu-Arabic numbers

 Roman Numerals I V X L C D M Hindu-Arabic Numerals 1 5 10 50 100 500 1000

Roman numerals formation rules

•                   If a symbol in roman numeral system is repeated, its value is added as many times as it appears.

Example: $II=1+1=2$

$XXX=10+10+10=30$

$CC=100+100=200$

$MMM=1000+1000+1000=3000$

It may be noted that no numerals can be repeated more than 3 times. Repetition is allowed only for symbols I, X and C.

V, L and D are never repeated

•                    A symbols of small value is placed to the right of larger value and its value is added to the larger value.

Example:

$XII=10+1+1=12$

$XV=10+5=15$

$LV=50+5=55$

$CX=100+10=110$

•                   A symbol of smaller value is placed to the left of larger value and its value is subtracted from the larger value.

Example:

$IV=51=4$

$IX=91=8$

$VL=505=45$

$VC=1005=95$

$XC=10010=90$

•                   The symbol V (5), L (50) and D (500) can?t be placed to the left of larger value. i.e. V, L and D are never subtracted.
•                   A symbol of smaller value is placed between two symbols of larger value. It is always subtracted from the immediately following symbol of larger value.

Example: $XIV=10+(5-1)=14$

$XXIV=10+10+(5-1)=24$

$CXL=100+(5010)=140$

If a bar is placed over a symbol in a Roman numeral system, its value is multiplied by 1000.

Example:$\overline{V}=5000$

$\overline{L}=50000$

$\overline{C}=100000$

•                    A symbol can be repeated up to a maximum of three times only.
•                    I can be subtracted from V and X only.
•                    X can be subtracted from L and C only.
•                    C can be subtracted from D and M only.

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