# 4th Class Mathematics Factors and Multiples Multiples and Factors

Multiples and Factors

Category : 4th Class

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

• understand the concept of factors.
• understand the concept of multiples.
• use factor tree to find the factors of a number.
• to find prime numbers, factors and multiples of given number.
• to apply factors and multiples to real life situations.

Amazing Fact

A number’s composite factors are found by multiplying 2 or more prime factors.

For example: The composite factors of $18\left( 2\times 3\times 3 \right)$are$6\left( 2\times 3 \right)$and$9\left( 3\times 3 \right)$

Real Life Example

Money can use the concept of factors. One can exchange a 100 – Rupee by two 50 – Rupee notes (factors 2 and 50) or five 20 – Rupee note (factors 5 and 20).

QUICK CONCEPT REVIEW

Factors are numbers that multiplies to get another number.

For example: 4 and 7 are multiplied to get 28, then 4 and 7 are factors of 28.

Multiples are product obtained by multiplying one number by another.

For example: 8 and 11 are multiplied to get 88, then 88 is a multiple of 8 and 11.

The factors (or multiples) that are common between 2 or more numbers are called common factors (or multiples) of given numbers.

PROPERTIES OF FACTORS AND MULTIPLIES

• 1 is a factor of every number.
• Every number is a factor of itself.
• Every factor of a number is an exact divisor of that number.
• Every factor of a number is less than or equal to the number.
• Factors of a given number are finite.
• Prime numbers have only 2 factors: 1 and the number itself.
• Every number is a multiple of itself.
• Every multiple of a number is greater than or equal to that number.
• The number of multiples of a given number is unlimited.

Play Time

(1) Make two teams.

Ask the first team to pick up a number between 1 and 50. Then ask them to call out a factor of that number. Ask the second team to call out a factor or multiple of the called out number. Continue this process till all the factors and multiples are said. One who cannot give the factor or multiple will be out.

Misconcept/Concept

Misconcept: Student might confuse between the concept of factors and multiples.

Concept: Explain factors come from dividing and multiples come from multiplying.

Misconcept: 1 is a prime number.

Concept: 1 is not a prime number even 1 is neither composite nor prime.

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