Multiples and Factors

**Category : **4th Class

**LEARNING OBJECTIVES**

**This lessen will help you to:—**

- understand the concept of factors.
- understand the concept of multiples.
- use factor tree to find the factors of a number.
- to find prime numbers, factors and multiples of given number.
- to apply factors and multiples to real life situations.

**Amazing Fact**

A number’s composite factors are found by multiplying 2 or more prime factors.

**For example:** The composite factors of \[18\left( 2\times 3\times 3 \right)\]are\[6\left( 2\times 3 \right)\]and\[9\left( 3\times 3 \right)\]

**Real Life Example**

Money can use the concept of factors. One can exchange a 100 – Rupee by two 50 – Rupee notes (factors 2 and 50) or five 20 – Rupee note (factors 5 and 20).

**QUICK** **CONCEPT** **REVIEW**

Factors are numbers that multiplies to get another number.

**For example:** 4 and 7 are multiplied to get 28, then 4 and 7 are factors of 28.

Multiples are product obtained by multiplying one number by another.

**For example:** 8 and 11 are multiplied to get 88, then 88 is a multiple of 8 and 11.

The factors (or multiples) that are common between 2 or more numbers are called common factors (or multiples) of given numbers.

** **

**PROPERTIES OF FACTORS AND MULTIPLIES**

- 1 is a factor of every number.
- Every number is a factor of itself.
- Every factor of a number is an exact divisor of that number.
- Every factor of a number is less than or equal to the number.
- Factors of a given number are finite.
- Prime numbers have only 2 factors: 1 and the number itself.
- Every number is a multiple of itself.
- Every multiple of a number is greater than or equal to that number.
- The number of multiples of a given number is unlimited.

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**Play Time**

(1) Make two teams.

Ask the first team to pick up a number between 1 and 50. Then ask them to call out a factor of that number. Ask the second team to call out a factor or multiple of the called out number. Continue this process till all the factors and multiples are said. One who cannot give the factor or multiple will be out.

**Misconcept/Concept**

**Misconcept:** Student might confuse between the concept of factors and multiples.

**Concept: **Explain factors come from dividing and multiples come from multiplying.

**Misconcept: **1 is a prime number.

**Concept: **1 is not a prime number even 1 is neither composite nor prime.

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