Notes - Science and Technology

Category : 4th Class

Science and Technology

 

Today, we cannot expect our life without science and technology. Science and technology are extremely essential in our everyday life as they have made things more simple, fast and secured. Science and technologies are not only subjects. Rather, they means us ways and objects that help us live a better life!

 

Interesting Fact

  •             The average person walks the equivalent of five time around the world in a lifetime

 

MATTER

Matter is all around us. Matter is the air you are breathing. Matter is the computer you are reading from now. hotter is the stuff you touch and see.

Matter is defined as anything that has mass and takes up space. Matter is found in 3 major states; solid, liquid and gas. All matter is made of atoms. Atoms are the smallest particles of matter.

 

Interesting Fact

  •             Matter has two types of properties; physical & chemical
  •            Most of the elements on the periodic table are made of slid matters
  •            Humans are made of all the three main states of matter.

 

STATES OF MATTER

The three states of waiter are solids liquids and gases.

 

Solid are objects that keep their own shape and do not flow in a given temperature. Ice is a solid but when it melts it becomes a liquid. Other examples of solids are cars, books and clothes. Solids can be of different colours and textures, and they can be turned into different shapes. For example, clay. Solids are made up of molecules which group together and don't move around. Solids hold their shape at room temperature. The pencil that you left in the desk at school will still be the same shape when you return tomorrow.

 

SOLIDS

Solid are objects that keep their own shape but can take the shape of the container they are in and they can flow at a given temperature. Ice is a solid but when it melts it become a liquid. Other Examples of solids are cars, books and clothes.

 

Solids can be of different colours and textures, and they can be turned into different shapes. For example, clay. Solids are made up of molecules which group together and don?t move around.

 

Solids hold their shape at room temperature. The pencil that you left in the desk at school will still be the same shape when you return tomorrow.

 

LIQUIDS

Liquids do not have their own shape but can take the shape of the container they are in and they can flow the shape of the container they are in and they can flow at a given temperature Examples of liquids are tea. Water and blood.

 

They can be different and thickness. For example custard is a thicker liquid than tea and doesn?t flow as quickly as tea.

 

Do you know

  •             Reflecting telescope was invented by Sir Issac Newton.

GASES

Are often invisible and assume the shape and volume of their container. The air we breathe is made up of different gases.

 

Gases are air-like substances that can move around freely or flow to fit a container and they don't have their own shape. You can put your hand through gases and you won't feel them.

 

If they get out their container they can spread easily. We are surrounded by different gases in the air we breathe.

 

Do you know

 

  •            When liquid gasoline is burned in a car, it turns into various gases which go into the air form the exhaust pipe.
  •             Fire is  a mixture of not gases
  •             Plasma is by far the most abundant state of matter in the universe because stars are mostly plasma

 

SIMPLE MACHINE

 

The presence of machines make offices, factories, and homes more comfortable and help people to do their work easily .They also help with disabilities. New technology also help to make the work safer and more fun.

Lever

Lever a simple machine can be used to lift objects. It can be used to increase the force applied by us. For example long bar used to move a boulder.

Inclined plane

 

An inclined plane is a simple machine used to move objects to a higher place. For example, ladder, slide, etc.

Wheel and Axle

Interesting Facts

  •            Archimedes of Syracuse was an ancient Greek scientist and inventor. Though he did not invent the simple machines, he did much of the early research and development of them.
  •             A pulley has a rope and wheels It can be used to pull things up. An old-fashioned well uses a pulley water from underground.
  •           Early man invented the first machines over 2 million years ago. These were rock axes. People made windmills and water movers around the time of the birth of Christ. Even monkey and some other animals use simple machines like sticks and rocks to get food.

 

A wheel and axle is a simple machine. It makes work easier to do .Sewing machine, cycle, grinding machines have wheel and axle.

A pulley is a simple machine used to lift heavy loads. Pulley an effort can be applied in one direction and a load can be moved in another direction. For example, flagpole cloths line and curtain string have pulley.

Pulley  

 

SCIENTIFIC INVENTIONS / DISCOVERIES

We live in the age of science and technology. The lives everyone is highly dependent on the scientific invention and modern-day technologies. Science and technology changed the lives of people to a great extent.

Science has made significant contributions in health by providing treatment for various chronic disease technology has benefited us in receiving those treatment through various ways and devices like X-ray. Machines, operation devices, pacemaker, etc.

 

Interesting Facts

  •            In 1869, when Edison was just 22 years old, he got his first patent for a telegraphic vote recording machine for the legislature. Each legislator would move a switch on Edison?s machine that would record his vote on a particular bill.
  •           Franklin had a lifelong during his childhood in Boston. One of his first inventions was a pair of wooden hand paddles that he used to propel himself through the Charles River , and he wrote of once using a kite to skim across a pond
  •           Isaac Newton disliked to hear any criticism and he became embroiled in a bitter row with Robert Hooke, an original member of the Royal Academy.

 

Given below is the list of Scientists and their Inventions

 

1.

Aeroplane

Wright brothers

2.

Ball- Point Pen

C. Biro

3.

Barometer

E. Torricelli

4.

Bicycle

K. Mac Millan

5.

Calculating Machine

Pascal

6.

Diesel Engine

Rudolf Diesel

7.

Dynamo

Michael Faraday

8.

Electric Lamp

Thomas Alva Edison

9.

Film (With sound)

Dr. Lee do Forest

10.

Fountain Pen

L.E. Waterman

11.

Jet Engine

Sir Frank Whittle

12.

Life

E.F. Otis

13.

Motor Car

Karl Benz

14.

Steam Engine

James Watt

15.

Telephone

Alexander Graham Bell

16.

Television (Colour)

John Legie Baird

17.

Gramophone

Emile  Berliner

18.

Dynamite

Alfred Nobel

19.

Gravity

Issac Newton

20

Electric Battery

Alexandro Volta

21.

Thermometer

Galileo

22.

Bifocal Lens

Benjamin Franklin

23.

Printing Machine

John Guten Berg

24.

Helicopter

Breguet  

25.

X-Rays

Roentgen

 

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Notes - Science and Technology
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