Grammar

Category : 4th Class

Grammar

 

1. NOUN

 

A noun is the name of a person, place or thing, etc.

 

 

1.            Proper Noun

A proper noun is the name of some particular person, place or thing.

For example:

Ashoka was a wise king. Here, Ashoka is the proper noun.

 

2.            Common Noun

A common noun is a name given in common to every person or thing of the same class or kind.

For example:

The boy plays in the playground. Here, boy is the common noun.

 

3.            Collective Noun

A collective noun is name of a number of person or things taken together.

For example:

There was a great crowd. Here, crowd is the collective noun.

 

4.            Material Noun

A material noun is the word used for the substance of which things are made.

For example: Brass is yellow. Here, brass is the material noun.

 

5.            Abstract Noun

An abstract noun is usually the name of a quality, action, or state considered apart from the object to which it belongs.

For example:

I remember my childhood. Here, childhood is an abstract noun.

 

2. PRONOUN

 

A pronoun is a word which is used in place of a noun.

 

Kinds of Pronoun:

 

1.          Personal Pronoun

Personal pronoun stands for person or thing.

For example:

I am young. Here, I is a personal pronoun.

 

2.            Interrogative Pronoun

They are used for asking questions.

For example:

Whose is this book? Here, whose is interrogative pronoun.

 

3.            Reflexive Pronoun

Reflexive Pronouns are used when an action done by the subject turns back (reflects) upon the subject itself.

For example:

I hurt myself. Here, myself is reflexive pronoun.

 

4.            Demonstrative Pronoun

It shows the noun in the sentence.

For example:

This book is mine. Here, this is demonstrative pronoun.

 

5.            Indefinite Pronoun

It refers to persons or things in a general way.

For example:

One hardly knows what to do. Here, one is indefinite pronoun.

 

6.          Distributive Pronoun

They refer to persons or things one at a time.

For example:

These horses cost five thousand rupees each. Here, each is distributive pronoun.

 

7.            Relative Pronoun

It refers or relates to some noun introduced earlier.

For example:

I met Hari who had just returned. Here, who is relative pronoun.

 

8.            Reciprocal Pronoun

The pronoun which is made up of two pronouns and shows a relation.

For example:

The girls helped one another. Here, one another is the reciprocal pronoun.

 

3. VERB

 

A verb is a word or a group of words that expresses action, feeling or existence.

 

Kinds of Verb:

            1. Intransitive Verb

            2. Transitive Verb

            3. Linking Verb (Verb of incomplete predication)

            4. Auxiliary or Helping Verb

 

1.            Intransitive Verb

Without using an object this verb completes the meaning of sentence.

For example: The baby sleeps.

Robin sings.

 

2.            Transitive Verb

This verb needs object to complete the meaning of sentence.

For example: Graham plays cricket.

Henry loves his aunt.

 

3.            Linking Verb

The verb requires a word to make the sense complete.

For example: Sugar tastes sweet.

She looks happy

 

4.            Auxiliary Verb

It is a helping verb.

For example: Ibrahim is writing a book.

You have spoken the truth.

 

4. ARTICLES

 

The words 'a', 'an' and 'the' are called articles. They come before nouns.

The articles a, an and the are further divided into two parts. They are the following:

(i)         Indefinite Article

 

(ii)        Definite Article

 

(i)         Indefinite Articles

'A and an' are called indefinite articles, because they do not refer to any particular person, place, animal or thing.

For example:

A doctor; here a doctor signifies to any doctor and not a specific one.

 

Use of Indefinite Articles A and An

 

'A' is used before a singular countable noun beginning with consonant.

For example:

  •            His brother is a teacher.
  •           I saw a girl in the garden.
  •            She gave me a pen yesterday.
  •           Steve wants to buy a car.

 

In the above given sentences, 'a' has been used before the nouns- teacher, girl, pen and car. These are single countable nouns beginning with consonant letters.

'A' is also used before a singular noun beginning with vowel letter but sounds like a consonant.

For example:

 

  •          He studies in a university
  •          He gave me a one-rupee note yesterday
  •         He is a European.
  •         The cow is a useful animal.

 

In the above given sentences, 'a' has been used  

Before 'university', 'one-rupee note',           

"European" and "useful."

These words, though begin with vowel letters, their sounds are like consonants. 'An' is used before a singular noun beginning with a vowel letter.

For example:

 

  •           I am an Indian.
  •            He bought an umbrella.
  •           He eats an apple.
  •           She saw an owl yesterday.

 

In the above given sentences, 'an' has been used before 'Indian', 'umbrella', 'apple' and 'owl'. All of these words begin with vowel letters.

'An' is also used before a singular noun beginning with consonant letters but sounds like vowel.

For example:

 

  •            Mr. John is an S.R
  •             He went from here an hour before.
  •             HIs father is an M.L.A.
  •           He is an M.P.

 

In the above given sentences, 'an' has been used before 'S.P.', 'hour', 'M.L.A.' and 'M.P.' These words though begin with consonants but sound like vowel.

 

Definite Articles

'The' is called definite article, because it refers to   

a particular person, place, animal or thing.

For example:

 

  •            This is the boy who helped me yesterday.
  •           The Geeta is a religious book.
  •          The apple you ate was rotten.

 

Use of Definite Article 'The'

 

It is used when we talk about a particular person or thing, or one already referred to:

F'or example:

 

  •            The book you want is out of print. (Which book? The one you want.)
  •             Let's go to the park. (= the park in this town)
  •            The girl cried, (the girl = already talked about)

It is used when a singular noun is meant to represent a whole class:

For example:

  •            The cow is a useful animal.

Or we may say, 'Cows are useful animals.'

  •           The horse is a noble animal.
  •           The cat loves comfort.
  •           The rose is the sweetest of all flowers.
  •            The banyan is a kind of fig tree.

 

Note: Do not say, 'a kind of a fig tree'. This is a. common error.

The two nouns 'mm and 'woman' can be used. in a general sense without either articles,

For example:

 

  •           Man is the only animal that uses fire.
  •           Woman is man's mate.
  •           But in present-day English, a man and a woman (or men and women) are more usual.
  •           A woman is more sensitive than a man.

It is used before some proper names. For example:

  •         Oceans and seas, e.g., the Pacific, the Black Sea
  •           Rivers, e.g., the Ganga, the Nile
  •          Canals, e.g., the Suez Canal
  •          Deserts, e.g., the Sahara
  •          Groups of islands, e.g., the West Indies
  •           Mountain ranges, e.g., the Himalayas, the Alps
  •         The names of a few countries that include words like republic and kingdom (e.g., the Irish Republic, the United Kingdom). Also, the Ukraine, the Netherlands (and its seat of government).

It is used before the names of certain books. For example:

  •         The Vedas, the Puranas, the Iliad, the Ramayana.

But we say- Homer's Iliad, Valmikis Ramayana.

Before names of things unique of their kind. For example:

  •          The Sun, the sky, the ocean, the sea, the Earth.

Note: Sometimes 'the' is placed before a Common noun to give it the meaning of an Abstract noun.

For example: At last the warrior (the warlike or martial spirit) in him was thoroughly aroused.

 

It is used before a Proper noun when it is qualified by an adjective or a defining adjectival clause. For example:

  •          The great Caesar: The immortal Shakespeare.
  •          The car that you brought last night.

It is used with Superlatives. For example:

  •          The darkest cloud has a silver lining.
  •          This is the best book of elementary chemistry.

      It is used with ordinals. For example:

  •           He was the first man to arrive.
  •           The ninth chapter of the book is very interesting.

It is used before musical instruments. For example:

  •           He can play the flute.

It is used before an adjective when the noun is understood. For example:

  •           The poor are always wdth us.

It is used before a noun (with emphasis) to give the force of a Superlative. For example:

  •          The Verb is the word (= the chief word) in a sentence.

It is used as an Adverb with Comparatives. For example:

  •            The more the merrier.

(= by how much more, by so much the merrier)

  •            The more they get, the more they want.

It is used in its original numerical sense of one. For example:

  •            Twelve inches make a foot.
  •            Not a word was said.
  •             A word to the wise is sufficient.
  •            A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.

It is used in the vague sense of a certain. For example:

  •            One evening a beggar came to my door.

It is used in the sense of any to single out an individual as the representative of a class.

For example:

  •            A pupil should obey his teacher.
  •             A cow is a useful animal.

To make a common noun of a proper noun. For example:

  •           A Daniel come to judgement! (A Daniel = a very wise man)

 

5. PREPOSITIONS

 

A preposition is a word placed before a noun or a pronoun to show its relation to some other word in the sentence.

Look at the following sentences:

 

  •             The book is on the table.
  •            She laughed at me.

Here, 'on' shows the relation between two nouns (book and table) and 'at' shows the relation between two pronouns (she and me). Therefore, these are prepositions.

 

Kinds of Prepositions

Prepositions are of three types:

 

1.          Simple Prepositions

Some simple prepositions are:

in, on, at, to, from, with, by, etc.

For example:

 

  •            The Principle is in the hall.
  •              My father is at home.
  •            Mat is on the roof
  •            I want to buy a fruit.
  •           The soldiers fought with courage.

 

2.            Compound Prepositions

Some compound prepositions are:

about, across, among, betzveen, beside,  before, etc.

For example:

 

  •            Divide these bananas among five girls.
  •           There was a cigar between his lips.
  •            I have three other coats beside this.

 

3.            Phrase Prepositions

Some phrase prepositions are:

according to, in spite of, on account of, in front of, in order to, for the sake of, by means of, with

reference to, in addition to, due to, etc.

For example:

 

  •             He acted according to my advice.
  •             He left the job because of bad health.
  •            In case of need he always comes to me.
  •            He fell ill due to overwork.

 

6. CONJUNCTIONS

 

A conjunction is a word that joins words, phrases, clauses and sentences together.

Look at the use of conjunctions in the following sentences:

 

  •            Stay here till I return.
  •            This is the car that I want to buy.
  •            You can go today or tomorrow.
  •             You will catch the train if you go now.
  •           He likes to eat rice and curd.
  •            Ramesh could not go to school because he was ill.
  •            I missed that train although I walked fast.
  •           We played very well but we lost that match.

The words till, that, or, if, and, because, although, but are conjunctions in these sentences.

 

 

 

7. USE OF POSSESSIVES

 

Possessive Case of Noun

If there is a relation with the person then we use the possessive case. We often use ?s? instead of using an ?of? phrase.

For Example: Germany's economy or the economy of Germany

When using the possessive case with a time, ?s? is added.

For Example:

 

A three week's holiday

Look at the following sentence:

This is the doll of Rita.

After using Possessive the sentence will become: This is Rita's doll.

 

Other Topics

Notes - Grammar
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