# 3rd Class Science Reasoning and Aptitude Reasoning Aptitude

Reasoning Aptitude

Category : 3rd Class

Reasoning and Aptitude

Introduction

Learning process is dependent on one's ability to think logically and reason quickly and effectively. So reasoning and logic skills are an important part in our progress as these skills are very useful in our day to day life. In this chapter, we will learn various problems related to reasoning and aptitude.

Problems Based on Alphabet Test and word Formation

Following table represents each letter of the English alphabet by a number which corresponds to that letter's position in the alphabet. There are 26 letters in English alphabet. The first letter is A and last letter is Z.

Some Important Tips

1. Arrange the letters in different combinations given in options to find a meaningful word if the numbers are given to the corresponding letters.
2. To form a meaningful word and to find the category of word, arrange the given jumbled letters in meaningful word and identify the category in which formed word lies.
3. To identify the combination of letters that has same number of skipped letters between the adjacent letters, write the alphabetical series in order, then observe carefully all the options.

Example: Form a meaningful word by arranging the given numbers corresponding to the letters given below:

 A L Y P 1 2 3 4

(a) 2, 1, 4, 3                 (b) 4, 3, 2, 1

(c) 4, 2, 1, 3                 (d) 3, 2, 1, 4

(e) None of these

Explanation: Option (a): 2, 1, 4, 3 = LAPY

Option (b): 4, 3, 1, 2 = PYAL

Option (c): 4, 2, 1, 3 = PLAY

Option (d): 3, 2, 1, 4= YLAP

So, the word formed by the by the series given in option (c) is a meaningful word.

Example:

Which letter will replace the question mark (?) in the letter series given below?

 C F I L O ?

(a) R                            (b) P

(c) Q                                        (d) M

(e) None of these

Explanation: The answer is R, because the pattern is to count forward in three's from the first given letter Problems Based on Analytical Reasoning

The term "analytical reasoning" refers to recognizing patterns and connections in a variety of information. It is logical puzzle based on a given set of conditions. Analytical reasoning test measures our ability to analyze and to draw result from a situation by applying our logic.

Example:

Read the following information carefully.

• Amit is younger than Rajesh.
• Rajesh is younger than Manpreet.
• Akash is the eldest.
• Mohit is the youngest.

Based on the above information, answer the given question:

If we arrange their ages in ascending order then who will be in the third place?

(a) Amit                       (b) Rajesh

(c) Manpreet                (d) Akash

(e) Mohit

Explanation: Let us arrange the group of children in ascending order as per their age.

Mohit < Amit < Rajesh < Manpreet < Akash

Therefore, Rajesh will be in the third place.

Problems Based on Analogy

Analogy is a similarity between like features of two things, on which comparison may be based. In analogy based questions, we will usually be given one pair of images that are connected in a particular way and the first image of the second pair in the same way as the first pair.

Example:

Identify the relationship between the pair of figures given on either side of :: and then find the missing figure. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) None of these

Explanation: Look carefully at the pair of figures on the left side of :: and consider their relationship to the second pair.

To play hockey, a hockey stick and a ball are required. In the same way, to play badminton, we need to shuttle bat and a shuttlecock. So, the figure given in option (c) is correct.

Example:

Identify the relationship between the pair of figures given on either side of :: and then find the missing figure. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) None of these

Explanation: Look carefully at the pair of figures on the left side of :: and consider their relationship to the second pair.

Shape: Both are of the same shape, and both contain an unshaded triangle, two shaded triangles and one shaded circle.

Position: The position of the one unshaded triangle has changed from bottom of the left side to the top of the right side.

The position of two shaded triangles has changed from top of the right side to the bottom of the left side.

The position of one shaded circle has changed from bottom of the right side to the top of the left side. Here, also no change in any of the angles, size and in the shading.

Now, on the basis of above, we can predict the second phase in the second pair. Therefore, the figure given in option (d) is correct.

Problems Based on Classification of Figures

Classification of the figures or shapes test our ability to work out, which shapes are similar and which are different in a given set of options. We need to use our observation skill to compare the given shapes, symbols and find the visual link or links.

Example:

Find the odd one out.

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) None of these

Explanation:

Check Number: Each option has one triangle, one circle and one square box. Thus, there is no odd one out.

Check Location: In options (a), (c) and (d), the circle is outside the triangle while in option (b), it is inside.

Hence, the figure given in option (b) is the odd one out.

Example:

On the basis of number and its digits, choose the pencil that does not belong to the group.

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Explanation: In option (a): 645; 6 + 4 + 5 = 15

In option (b): 456; 4 + 5 + 6 = 15

In option (c): 478; 4 + 7 + 8 = 19

In option (d): 663; 6 + 6 + 3 = 15

In option (e): 276; 2 +7+6= 15

Hence, the pencil given in option (c) does not belong to the group.

Problems Based on Grouping of Figures

Reasoning based on grouping tests our understanding and recognition of the shapes and patterns. In these type of questions, we are required to analyze the given set of figures, numbers and classify them into groups.

Example:

·                     belongs to which of the following groups?

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) None of these

Explanation: The shape is a semi-circle or half of a circle. Clearly, this shape belongs to the group given in option (b).

Example:

In which group does the number 27 belong?

(a) 3, 6, 9, 12......         (b) 5, 10, 15......

(c) 6, 12, 18, 24.....      (d) 2, 4, 6, 8......

(e) None of these

Explanation: 27 comes in the table of 3.

Problems Based on Geometrical Shapes

Geometrical shapes come from geometry, which is the math of shapes made of points and lines. Some shapes are simple such as the triangle, square and circle while other shapes are so complex that it takes math in order to create them. Following table shows different shapes and their properties:

 Name Shape Properties Rectangle ·         Pair of opposition sides are equal ·         Four corners and four sides ·         Each angle is of (right angle) Square ·         All four sides are equal ·         Four corners and four sides ·         Each angle is of (right angle) Circle ·         No corner ·         Round in shape ·         Circle has a point in the centre from which each point on the circle is equidistant. Oval ·         No corner ·         Looks like an egg ·         Looks like an ellipse Sphere ·         No corner ·         Circular face ·         Shape of sphere is like ball Cone ·         Triangular and circular face ·         Has one vertex opposite to circular base Cylinder ·         Rectangular and circular faces ·         When unwrapped, the middle section and lay it flat, it is a rectangle

Example:

How many corners does the given figure have? (a) 12                           (b) 13

(c) 14                           (d) 15

(e) None of these

Explanation:

Here, the number of corners = 12 Example:

How many squares are there in the figure given below?

(a) 5                                         (b) 8

(c) 9                                         (d) 11

(e) None of these

Explanation:

Here, the number of small squares =8

Number of large square = 1; (ABCD)

Therefore, the total number of squares =8+1=9 #### Other Topics

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