Notes - Plants

Category : 3rd Class

Plants

 

Interesting Facts

  •          The branches and leaves of a plant together is called crown.
  •          85% of plants life is found in the ocean.
  •          Bamboo is the fastest - growing woody plant in the world. It can grow 35 inches in a single day.
  •          The amazon rainforest products half the world's oxygen supply.
  •          The earth has more than 80,000 species of edible plants.

 

Plants are very important for us. There are many plants around us of different shapes and size.

 

SOME CHARACTERSTICS OF PLANTS

  •            Need food to grow.
  •            Need oxygen for breathing purpose.
  •            Plants prepare food for themselves in the presence of air, water and sunlight.
  •            Plants reproduce their own kind.
  •            The smallest unit of plant body is cell.

 

DIFFERENT PARTS OF PLANTS

A plant has two main parts: root and shoot.

The part of the plant which grows above the ground is called shoot. Shoot system has branches, leaves, flowers, buds and fruits. The part which grows below the ground is called root.

 

 

FUNCTOINS

1.            Root: It absorbs water and minerals from the soil and passes it to the plant.

  •             It holds the plant firmly in the soil.
  •            It also stores food. Example. Carrot, Radish, etc.

 

2.            Stem: It keeps the plant strong and upright.

  •            The thick, hard and strong stem of big trees is known as trunk.
  •             It provides support to the plant.

 

3.            Leaves: Leaf is a very important part of the shoot system.

  •            A green leaf prepares food for the plant with the help the of air, water and sunlight, thus they are called the kitchen of a plant.
  •           This process of making food is called photosynthesis.
  •            In the process of making food, plants release oxygen into the air.

 

4.            Flowers: It makes the plant look beautiful.

  •            Many flowers turn into fruit such as tomato.
  •            It attracts insects and birds which helps in reproduction.

 

5.            Fruits: Fruit has seeds inside it which grow into new plants.

  •            Generally plants store food in their fruit.

 

6.            Seed: Seeds are present in fruit.

  •            Some seeds are edible and help in the growth and development of our body like cereals, pulses, groundnut. etc.

 

Do you know?

  •           Orchid plants have seed.

 

  •            Germination: The process of giving rise of a new plant from seed is called germination.

 

  •             A baby plant is called seedling.
  •             Seedling grows into sapling and sapling grows into plant.

 

DIFFERENT TYPES OF PLANTS FOUND IN DIFFERENT HABITAT

 

1.            Terrestrial plant: Plants that grow on land are called terrestrial plants.

Example: Banyan tree. Rose tree. etc.

 

(a) Mountain plants -

"There are other plants that grow on mountains. They are called mountain plants. Rocky mountain maple and Pine tree are examples of mountain plants."

 

(b) Desert plants -

  •    Cactus can survive in hot weather without water for many days. It is found in deserts. Thus, it is called a desert plant."

 

Interesting Facts

  •          Roots of Banyan tress help to support the plant.
  •          Pines have leaves shaped like needles that remain on the trees throughout the year.
  •          Sugar, black and red maples are the trees that are important for maple syrup production.

 

 

2.            Aquatic plants: Plants which grow in water are called Aquatic plants.

Aquatic plants are of three types:

(a)   Floating plants like water hyacinth.

 

(b)   Fixed plants like lotus.

 

(c)    Submerged plants like hydrilla.

 

Do you know?

  •            Aquatic plants such as water lilly, star grass and cattails require plenty of sunlight.
  •            Aquatic plans can have roots in the mud and submerged leaves or in the mud and floating leaves.

 

PARTS OF PLANT USED AS FOOD

 

 

Name of plants

Edible parts

Edible raw or cooked

1

Brinjal

Fruit

Cooked

2

Potato

Stem

Cooked

3

Apple

Fruit

Raw

4

Radish

Root

Both raw and cooked

5

Water spinach

Leaves

Cooked

6

Carrot

Root

Both raw and cooked

7

Broccoli

Flower

Cooked

8

Mango

Fruit

Raw

9

Cabbage

Leaves

Raw and cooked

10

Pulses

Seed

Cooked

 

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