Living and Non-Living Things
Category : 2nd Class
Living and Non-Living Things
There are certain characteristics of living things, which are as follows:
Characteristics of Living Things
Living things can feel
Living things on our earth can feel. If you throw a stone at a cat, it runs away. Because it feels pain when gets hurt by a stone. The animals not only feel pain but also the other sensations like hot and cold.
For example, when we touch a hot plate, we pull off our hand. Because we feel hot
Similarly if we touch ice, we feel cold. In other words, we can distinguish the things as hot or cold by just touching them.
A hot cup of tea A cold ice cream
Living things can move
Living things on earth, except plants, can move. But the way in which these animals move from one place to another is totally different from each other. For example, dog use their four legs for moving from one place to another.
Dog, cat, elephant, lion and most of the land animals use their four legs (front two legs are called forelimbs and other two legs are called hind limbs) for moving from one place to another.
Fishes and other aquatic animals move from one place to another by swimming. The special structured body of different aquatic animals help them to move in water.
Living things can breathe
All living beings can breathe. But again, the way to breathe in air is different in different living beings. For example, human beings breathe through nose, fishes breathe through their gills, cockroaches have spiracles and many other living beings have different organs to breathe.
The pictures given herewith will give you an idea about the different ways of breathing of different living beings.
Human Breathe through nose Breathe through moist skin
Breathe through spiracle Breathe through gills
All these livings beings, except plants, take in oxygen while breathing, and exhale out carbon dioxide.
Living things give birth to their own kind
All living beings give birth to their own kind this process is called reproduction. In other words, life produces life. But the way of doing this is different and vary from one living being to another. Some animals lay eggs to give birth to their young ones. For example, sparrow, snake, lizard, hen, duck, eagle, etc.
Other animals like dog, cat and human beings give birth to their young ones.
Some living beings who give birth to their young ones
Plants are basically produced from seeds. For example, mango plant. But there are also some plants which are produced from a single part of the plant only. For example, rose, sugarcane reproduce through cutting stem. Potato, on the other hand, reproduces through buds called tuber.
Living things show growth
Hen lays eggs, which hatch further and grow into an adult hen again. Similarly, seed germinates and grows into a complete plant, which may be a huge tree or a small plant. There is one basic difference between the growth of plants and animals. Animals do not grow after a certain age, but plants continue to grow throughout their life. Each animal lives for a certain period of time, which is referred as life span.
Living things need food
All living things need food to survive. Most of this food is utilised in the body for producing energy and rest is waste for the body.
Living things respond to stimuli
Plants and animals have another very interesting feature. They remain active and alive by adjusting with their surroundings. In other words, living being can respond to its surrounding according to the situation. For example, when a dog barks at you, you walk fast, even run at times to move away from it. The reaction to the situation, as you do when a dog barks at you, is called response of the organism.
Living things get rid of wastes
Most of the animals remove wastes in the form of urine and stools. We also release a gas, carbon dioxide as our waste product through nose. Plants release oxygen as their waste product, which is very important for human beings.
There are many non-living things around us. Non-living things are those which cannot move on their own, do not breathe, do not reproduce and do not show growth. Non- living things cannot breathe like living things. For example, chairs, tables, almirah, utensils, books, clothes, television, toys, refrigerator, car, bike, various household items, etc.
Some non-living things
Characteristics of Non-Living Things
Non-living things cannot move
Non-living things do not grow
Non-living things do not need food
Non-living things do not give birth to their own kind
Non-living things do not respond to stimuli
Non-living things do not produce waste from their body.
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