12th Class Mental Ability Analogy 372 Notes - Analogy

Notes - Analogy

Category : 12th Class

Analogy

Introduction

The word ANALOGY has been derived from two words ­­­­- ‘ANA’ means ‘Relation’ and ‘LOGUS’ mean ‘Study’. The word ‘ANALOGY’ literally means (i) a similar feature, condition, state etc. Shared by two things that are compared and (ii) a process of reasoning based on similar feature of two things. Thus Analogy means ‘similar feature’ a common feature or corresponding. This chapter gives the relationship between various elements, things, terms phenomenon etc. The analogy test mainly concentrates on relationship. In this test different types of questions are asked.

• An analogy question may have one or two words missing.
• Analogy test contains symbols like those in a mathematical ratio. One colon (:) denotes the words ‘is to’ two colons (::) stand for the words in the same way as”.

Example:

(1)        Tailor : Clothes : : Architect : Design

Explanation: Here two object related in some way are given and third object is also given with four or five alternative options. The candidates required to find out which one of the alternatives bears the same relation with the third object first and second objects are related.

For this chapter some relations are necessary to know:

1. Instruments and Measurement

 Instruments Measurements Ammeter Electric current Anemometer Wind (speed and velocity) Altimeter Altitudes Audiometer Difference of hearing Barometer Atmospheric pressure Dynamometer Electric power Fathometer Depth of ocean Galvanometer Relative current Hygrometer Relative humidity Micrometer Small distance and Angles Pyrometer High temperature Pyrheliometer Solar Radiation Pyknometer Density Planimeter Area of plane surface Quadrant Altitude Radio Micrometer Heat Radiations Rain Guage Rainfall Refractometer Refractive index Spring Balance Weight of a body Spectrometer Refractive index Spectroscope Spectrum analysis Sextant Angular distance Salinometer Density of salt solution Seismometer Earthquakes Sphygmomanometer Blood pressure Lactometer Purity of milk Thermoscope Temperature changes Thermometer Temperature Voltmeter Potential difference Vernier Small dub divisions of scale Viscometer Viscosity Magnetic compass Direction Watch Time Taseometer Strains Screw Guage Thickness

1. Worker and their places

 Worker Places Artist Theatre Beautician Parlour Clerk Office Doctor Hospital Driver Cabin Engineer Site Farmer Field/ Farm Grocer Shop Gambler Casino Kitchener or chef Kitchen Labourer Factory Lawyer Court Mechanic Garage Player Field Scientist Laboratory Teacher School Warrior Battlefield Sailor Ship Pilot Cockpit Servant House Waiter Restaurant Umpire Pitch Actor Stage Painter Gallery Professor University / College

1. Worker and Product

 Worker Product Author Book / Article Architect Design Butcher Meat Blacksmith Iron Choreographer Ballet Carpenter Furniture Cobbler Shoes Chef Food Driver Vehicle Dramatist Play Editor Newspaper Farmer Crop Goldsmith Ornaments Hunter Prey Judge Justice Mason Wall or roof or floor Teacher Education Journalist News Producer Film Poet Poem Tailor Clothes

1. Sex-Relationship

 Male Female Abbot Abbess Bull Cow Boy Girl Bridegroom Bride Bullock Heifer Buck Doe Boar Sow Bachelor Maid Czar Czarina Colt Filly Cock Hen Drone Bee Drake Duck Duke Duchess Don Donna Dog Bitch Earl Countess Emperor Empress Uncle Aunt Wizard Witch Executor Executrix Friar Nun or monk Nephew Niece Lion Lioness Tiger Tigress Horse Mare Man Woman Testator Testatrix Sultan Sultana Signor Signore

 Prosecutor Prosecutrix Hero Heroine Sorcerer Sorceress Murderer Murderess Marquis Marchioness Master Mistress Lad Lass Governor Governess Emperor Empress Sire Dam King Queen Hart Hind Pig Sow Sheep Ewe

1. Birds / Animals and their Cries

 Birds / Animals Cries Apes Gibber Asses Bray Bees Hum Bulls Bellow Camels Grunt Cats Mew Cocks Crow Cows Caw Dogs Bark Elephant Trumpet Flies Buzz Frogs Croak Goats Bleat Hens Cluck Horses Neigh Jackals Howl Lion Roar Monkeys Chatter Owls Hoot Parrots Talk Pigeons Coo Pigs Grunt Sheep Bleat Snakes Hiss

1. Animal and their young one

 Animals Young one Deer Fawn Cat Kitten Frog Tadpole Dog Puppy Hen Chicken Lion Cub Man Child Duck Ducking Sheep Lamb Horse Pony Butterfly Catterpillar Insect Larva Cow Calf Tortoise Turtle Pig Farrow Stallion Colt Ass Foal Goat Kid Wolf Pup

1. Worker and their tools

 Worker Tools Author Pen Blacksmith Anvil Astronomer Telescope Bricklayer Trowel Warrior Sword Chef Knife Labourer Spade Tailor Needle Cobbler Awl Painter Brush Barber Scissor Doctor Stethoscope Soldier Gun Mason Plumbline Carpenter Saw Wood Cutter Axe Sculptor Chisel Farmer Plough Gardener Harrow Surgeon Scalpel Lumberjack Axe Jockey Tack Violinist Bow

1. Country and National Games

 Country National Game Canada Ice Hockey Russia Bandy Scotland Golf England Football Japan Sumo Wrestling Spain Bull Fight USA Baseball France Football India Hockey Bangladesh Kabaddi Sri Lanka Volleyball

1. Country and River

 Country River India Ganga, Brahmaputra, Kaveri, Godavary, Krishna, Tapti. Narmada England Clude, Thames Germany Elbe Italy Tiber Poland Vistula Austria Danube USA Colorado Turkey Kizilirmak Germany Rhine, Spree Pakistan Indus Bangaldesh Meghna, Padma China Yang-tse-Kiang, Hwang Ho Russia Volga Canada Mackenzie Columbia Magdalena Myanmar Irrawaddy France Seine Portugal Tagus

1. Tribes and Country

 Tribes Country Abor, Aptanis, Bhil, Baiga, Bhot, Bhotia, Badagas, Chakma, Munda / and Kol India Maori New Zealand Red Indian USA Bedouin UAE Negro Africa, America Afridi Pakistan Zulu, Boer South Africa Kurds Iraq Magyars Hungary Moor North Africa Pygmy Cango basin Semite Ethiopia Sherpa Nepal Kyrgyz Central Asia

1. Tools and Action

 Tool Action Knife Cut Gun Shoot Pen White Microscope Magnify Steering Drive Chisel Carve Mattock Dig Oar Row Spade Dig Needle Sew Spoon Feed Spanner Grip Auger Bore Loudspeaker Amplify Scovill Scoop Filter Purify Ave Grind Shield Guard

1. Topic and Related Study

 Topic Study Anthropology Man Cardiology Heart Zoology Animals Astronomy Future Botany Plants Onomatology Names Ethnology Human Races Herpetology Amphibians Penology Punishment Phycology Algae Histology Tissues Selenography Moon Taxonomy Classification Mycology Fungi Pathology Diseases Nephrology Kidney Ornithology Birds Seismology Earthquake Pedology Soil Virology Viruses Ontology Reality Astronomy Planets Bryology Bryophytes Nidology Nests Ecrinology Secretions Orography Mountains Malacology Molluses Carinology Skull

1. Physical Quantity and Unit
 Quantity Unit Length Metre Mass Kilogram Time Second Force Newton Work Joule Current Ampere Power Watt Area Hectare Pressure Pascal Acceleration m/sec2 Temperature Degree Luminous intensity Candela Frequency Hertz Charge Coulumb Energy Joule Resistance Ohm Conductivity Mho Volume Litre Velocity m/sec Potential Volt Magnetic field Oersted

1. Product and Raw Material

 Product Raw Material Cloth Fibre Book Paper Sack Jute Shoes Leather Butter Milk Ghee Milk Metal Ore Linen Flax Omelette Egg jaggery Sugarcane Rubber Latex Prism Glass Wall Brick Oil Seed Furniture Wood Paneer Milk Paper Pulp Jewellery Gold Road Asphalt Wine Grapes Sugar Sugarcane Pullover Wool

1. Diseases and Causes

 Diseases Causes Rabies Bite of mad dog Influenza Virus Malaria Female Mosquito Cholera Cholera vibrio Tuberculosis Tubercle Bacillus Filaria Male Mosquito Encephalitis Virus Scurvy Lack of Vitamin C Hydrophobia Bite of mad dog Typhoid Bacteria Small pox Virus Rickets Lack of Vitamin A and D Beri-Beri Lack of vitamin B1 Poliomyelitis Virus

1. Word and Intensity

 Word Intensity Sink Drown Chide Scold Wish Desire Anger Rage Crime Sin Kindle Bum Unhappy Sad Quarrel War Moist Drench Famous Renowned Busy Hasty

1. Word and Antonym

 Word Antonyms Adversity Prosperity Ancient Modern Advance Retreat Attraction Repulsion Attack Defend Agree Differ Arrival Departure Boon Bane Beautiful Ugly Borrow Lend Bright Dull Bound Free Bold Timid Beauty Ugliness Care Neglect Creditor Debtor Clever Stupid Clean Dirty Common Rare Create Destroy Collect Disperse Deep Shallow Dark Light Delay Hurry Decrease Increase Domestic Wild Difficult Easy Dwarf Giant Explicit Implicit Expeditious Dilatory Exterior Interior Elevate Depress Failure Success Folly Wisdom False True Front Rear Freedom Slavery Final Initial Fast Slow Friendly Hostile Frank Reserved Full Empty Fresh Stalo Fortunate Unfortunate Far Near Fat Thin Foreign Native Fold Unfold Faithful Faithless Gloomy Gay Go Come Gather Scatter Glory Shame Guest Host Hard Soft Happiness Sadness Hope Despair Heaven Hell Hero Villain Harsh Mlid Honest Dishonest Insert Extract Interior Exterior Important Unimportant inferior Superior Just Unjust Kind Cruel Kill Revive Long Short. Logical Illogical Light Heavy Liquid Solid Loose Tight Love Hate Lend Borrow Laugh Weep Legal illegal Lock Unlock Majority Minority Mental Physical Mortal Immortal Make Mar Male Female Maximum Minimum Native Foreign Word Antonyms Noble Ignoble Night Day Normal Abnormal Odd Even Oral Written Famous Notorious Often Seldom Open Shunt Pious Impious Positive Negative Pleasure Pain Pros Cons Public Private Use Abuse Useful Useless Victory Defeat Virtue Vice Vain Vice Vertical Horizontal Whole Part Weal Woe Warm Cool Wax Wane Young Old Yoke Liberty

1. World of Synonyms

 Word Synonyms Plentiful Surplus Love Affection Ghastly Garrulous Talkative Horrible Queer Strange Quote Cite Scold Chide Serious Grave Shy Bashful Tame Gentle Tough Hard Ugly Unsightly Vindicative Revengeful Wise Sagacious Yield Surrender Yoke Oppression Abash Disconcert Babble Prattle Bad Evil Bait Tease Bale Woe Bandit Robber Cab Cabriolet Calix Cup Deck Adorn Emulate Imitate Humane Kind Annihilate Destroy Absolve Forgive Adept Expert Brave Courageous Ban Prohibition Covert Hidden Emancipate Liberate Fabricate Construct Guile Fraud Hope Belief Joy Delight

 Laxity Slackness Lucky Fortunate Malady Illness Manifest Noticeable Misery Sorrow Obedient Submission Opulence Wealth Palatable Tarty Quaint Odd Quell Suppress Rigid Stift Renown Fame Sane Sensible

1. Country and Capital

 Country Capital Afghanistan Kabul Algeria Algeria (Algiers) Australia Canberra Austria Vienna Argentina Buenos Aires Bangladesh Dhaka Belgium City of Brussels Bolivia La paz Bhutan Thimphu Brazil Brasilia Bulgaria Sofia Canada Ottawa Colombia Bogota Cuba Havana Costa Rica San Jose Denmark Copenhagen Ecuador Quito Ethiopia Addis Ababa Finland Helsinki France Paris Greece Athens Guinea Conakry Hungary Budapest Haiti Port-au-Prince Israel Tel Aviv Iraq Baghdad Indonesia Jakarta Italy Rome (ran Teheran UK London Tunisia Tunis Turkey Ankara Switzerland Bern Sweden Stockholm Peru Lima South Korea Seoul Kenya Nairobi Jordan Amman Japan Tokyo Russia Moscow Ukraine Kiev Myanmar Naypyidaw Laos Vientiane Libya Tripoli

1. Location and Space

 Location Space Wall street New York Red Fort New Delhi Taj Mahal Agra Pagoda Yangon Kremlin Moscow Oval London Jama Masjid New Delhi Chicago USA Red Square Moscow Pyramid Egypt Pentagon Washington Rock garden Chandigarh Golden Temple Amritsar Qutub Minar New Delhi Sydney Australia Albany New York Brown House Berlin Merdeka Jakarta

1. Symbolic Relationship

 Lotus Culture and Civilization White Pigeon Peace Black Band on arm Sorrow Olive branch Peace Maharaja Air India Red Triangle Family planning Victoria cross Bravery Black Sorrow Red light Danger Star Rank Swastika Fortune Crown Monarch Green light Clear Mace Majesty

Snap Test

Direction: In each of the following question there are two words or two groups of letters on one side of the sign (::) and one word or a group of letters with a sign (?) of the other side. The relationship which obtains between the two words or two group of letter on one side of the sign : : is to be found in the word or two groups of letters and the missing word or a group of letter indicated by (?) on the other side. The missing word or a group of letters is given as one of the four alternatives. Select the best alternatives:

1. Bird : Fly : : Snake : ?

(a) Timid                                   (b) Clatter

(c) Crawl                                    (d) Hole

Ans.     (c)

Explanation: Bird fly while snake crawl.

1. India : New Delhi : Pakistan : ?

Ans.     (b)

Explanation: New Delhi is the capital of India and similarly Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan.

1. Smoke : Pollution : : War: ?

(a) Victory                                 (b) Death

(c) Enemy                                  (d) Army

Ans.     (b)

Explanation: Smoke causes pollution and war causes death.

1. Newspaper: Editor : : Film : ?

(a) Actor                                    (b) Director

(c) Audience                               (d) Produce

Ans.     (b)

Explanation: Editor is responsibility for the subject matter published in a newspaper while the director is responsible         for the subject matter and its way of presentation in the film.

1. Cobbler: Shoe : : Carpenter:?

(a) Furniture                               (b) Gold

(c) Wood                                   (d) Iron

Ans.     (a)

Explanation: Shoe is made or repaired by the cobber while furniture is made or repaired by the carpenter.

Other Topics

Notes - Analogy

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