JEE Main & Advanced Chemistry Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure Bond Characteristics

Bond Characteristics

Category : JEE Main & Advanced

(1) Bond length           

"The average distance between the centre of the nuclei of the two bonded atoms is called bond length".           

It is expressed in terms of Angstrom (1 Å = \[{{10}^{-10}}\]m) or picometer (1pm = \[{{10}^{-12}}\]m).           

In an ionic compound, the bond length is the sum of their ionic radii (\[d={{r}_{+}}+{{r}_{-}}\]) and in a covalent compound, it is the sum of their covalent radii (e.g., for HCl, \[d={{r}_{H}}+{{r}_{Cl}}\]).           

Factors affecting bond length           

(i) The bond length increases with increase in the size of the atoms. For example, bond length of \[H-X\] are in the order, \[HI>HBr>HCl>HF\].           

(ii) The bond length decreases with the multiplicity of the bond. Thus, bond length of carbon-carbon bonds are in the order,  \[C\equiv C<C=C<CC\].           

(iii) As an s-orbital is smaller in size, greater the s-character shorter is the hybrid orbital and hence shorter is the bond length.             

For example,  \[s{{p}^{3}}\,CH>s{{p}^{2}}\,CH>sp\,CH\]           

(iv) Polar bond length is usually smaller than the theoretical non-polar bond length.   


(2) Bond energy           

"The amount of energy required to break one mole of bonds of a particular type so as to separate them into gaseous atoms is called bond dissociation energy or simply bond energy". Greater is the bond energy, stronger is the bond. Bond energy is usually expressed in \[kJ\,mo{{l}^{1}}\].           

Factors affecting bond energy           

(i) Greater the size of the atom, greater is the bond length and less is the bond dissociation energy i.e. less is the bond strength.           

(ii) For the bond between the two similar atoms, greater is the multiplicity of the bond, greater is the bond dissociation energy.           

(iii) Greater the number of lone pairs of electrons present on the bonded atoms, greater is the repulsion between the atoms and hence less is the bond dissociation energy.               

(iv) The bond energy increases as the hybrid orbitals have greater amount of s orbital contribution. Thus, bond energy decreases in the following order, \[sp>s{{p}^{2}}>s{{p}^{3}}\]           

(v) Greater the electronegativity difference, greater is the bond polarity and hence greater will be the bond strength i.e., bond energy, \[H-F>H-Cl>H-Br>H-I\],           

(vi) Among halogens  Cl - Cl > F - F > Br - Br > I - I, (Decreasing order of bond energy) Resonance increases bond energy.           

(3) Bond angle           

In case of molecules made up of three or more atoms, the average angle between the bonded orbitals (i.e., between the two covalent bonds) is known as bond angle q.           

Factors affecting bond angle           

(i) Repulsion between atoms or groups attached to the central atom may increase or decrease the bond angle.           

(ii) In hybridisation as the s character of the s hybrid bond increases, the bond angle increases.  

Bond type \[s{{p}^{3}}\] \[s{{p}^{2}}\] sp
Bond angle 109º28' 120° 180°


(iii) By increasing lone pair of electron, bond angle decreases approximately by 2.5%.


  \[C{{H}_{4}}\] \[N{{H}_{3}}\] \[{{H}_{2}}O\]
Bond angle 109º 107º 105º5'

(iv) If the electronegativity of the central atom decreases, bond angle decreases.           

\[\begin{array}{*{35}{l}}    {} & {{H}_{2}}O & \,\,\,\,\,\,>{{H}_{2}}S & \,\,\,\,\,\,\,>{{H}_{2}}Se & \,\,\,\,\,>{{H}_{2}}Te  \\    \mathbf{Bond angle}\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\mathbf{ } & {{104.5}^{\text{o}}} & \,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,{{92.2}^{\text{o}}} & \,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,{{91.2}^{\text{o}}} & \,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,{{89.5}^{\text{o}}}  \\ \end{array}\]           

In case the central atom remains the same, bond angle increases with the decrease in electronegativity of the surrounding atom.           

\[\begin{array}{*{35}{l}}    {} & \,\,\,PC{{l}_{3}} & \,\,PB{{r}_{3}} & \,P{{I}_{3}}\,\,, & \,\,\,AsC{{l}_{3}} & \,\,AsB{{r}_{3}} & \,As{{I}_{3}}  \\    \mathbf{Bond angle } & \,\,\,{{100}^{\text{o}}} & \,\,{{101.5}^{\text{o}}} & \,{{102}^{\text{o}}} & \,\,\,\,{{98.4}^{o}} & \,\,\,{{100.5}^{\text{o}}} & \,{{101}^{\text{o}}}  \\ \end{array}\,\,\]

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