(c) In the process of 'recombinant
DNA technology' the first step is isolation of DNA. Since; the DNA is enclosed
within the membranes, we have to break the cell open to release DNA along with
other macromolecules such as RNA, proteins, polysaccharides and also lipids.
This can be achieved by treating the
bacterial ceils/plant of animal tissue with enzymes such as lysozyme
(bacteria), cellutase (plant cells) and chitinase (fungus).
As we know that genes are
located on long molecules of DNA interwined with proteins such as histones. The
RNA can be removed by treatment with ribonuclease, whereas proteins can be
removed by treatment with protease.
Other molecules can be removed
by appropriate treatments and purified DNA ultimately precipitates out after
the addition of chilled ethanol. Deoxyribo nuclease is not used in this process
as this enzyme causes the lysis of DNA molecules.
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