11th Class Chemistry The s-Block Elements

  • question_answer 1) Discuss the general characteristics and gradation in properties of alkaline earth metals:

    Answer:

    Common characteristics of alkaline earth metals; (i) Same electronic configuration, [inert gas] \[n{{s}^{2}}\]. (ii) Never found free in nature but always in combined state. (iii) Always show +2 oxidation state. (iv) With exception of Be and Mg, impart characteristic colour to flame. (v) With the exception of Be compounds, the salts are ionic. They are colourless. (vi) Metals and their salts are diamagnetic. (vii) Strong affinity for non-metals. (viii) Dissolve in liquid ammonia. (ix) Metals are obtained by electrolysis of fused salts, usually the fused halides. Gradation in properties Increasing trends Decreasing trends 1. Atomic radii 1. Metallic bonding 2. Ionic radii 2. Electro negativity 3. Electropositive or metallic nature 3. First and second ionisation energies 4. Reactivity 4.\[\Delta H\] hydration energy (Ex- tent of hydration) 5. Ionic conductance 5. Stability of the hydrides 6. Reducing nature 6. Lattice energy of chlorides 7.\[E_{ox}^{{}^\circ }\](oxid. potential) 7. Solubility of carbonates 8. Basic nature or oxide 8.Solubility of sulphates 9. Affinity for oxygen   10. Basic strength of hydroxides   11. Solubility of hydroxides   12. Ionic nature of halides   13. Stability of carbonates    

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