JEE Main & Advanced Chemistry Polymers Some Important Polymer and Their Uses

Some Important Polymer and Their Uses

Category : JEE Main & Advanced

  Rubber

Rubber Monomers Formula Applications
(i) Neoprene rubber \[\underset{\text{Chloroprene}}{\mathop{C{{H}_{2}}=\underset{Cl\,}{\mathop{\underset{|}{\mathop{C}}\,-}}\,CH=C{{H}_{2}}}}\,\] \[{{\left( -C{{H}_{2}}-\underset{Cl\,}{\mathop{\underset{|}{\mathop{C}}\,=}}\,CH-C{{H}_{2}}- \right)}_{n}}\] Making automobile, refrigerator parts and electric wire.
(ii) Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) or Buna-S Making of tyre and other mechanical rubber goods.
(iii) Butyl rubber \[{{\left( -C{{H}_{2}}-\overset{C{{H}_{3}}\,\,\,\,\,\,}{\mathop{\overset{|}{\mathop{C}}\,=CH}}\,-C{{H}_{2}}-\underset{C{{H}_{3}}\,\,\,\,\,\,\,}{\overset{C{{H}_{3}}\,\,\,\,\,\,\,}{\mathop{\underset{|}{\overset{|}{\mathop{C}}}\,-C{{H}_{2}}}}}\,- \right)}_{n}}\] Making of toys, tyre, tube etc.
(iv) Nitrile rubber or Buna N or GRA \[\underset{\text{Butadiene }(75%)}{\mathop{C{{H}_{2}}=CH-CH=C{{H}_{2}}}}\,\]and \[\underset{\text{Acrylonitrile }(25%)}{\mathop{C{{H}_{2}}=CH-CN}}\,\] \[{{\left( -C{{H}_{2}}-\underset{CN}{\mathop{\underset{|}{\mathop{C}}\,H}}\,-C{{H}_{2}}-CH=CH-C{{H}_{2}}- \right)}_{n}}\] Used for make of fuel tank.
(v) Polysulphide  rubber (Thiokol) \[\underset{\text{Ethylene dichloride}}{\mathop{Cl-C{{H}_{2}}-C{{H}_{2}}-Cl}}\,\] and \[\underset{\text{Sodium tetrasulphide}}{\mathop{N{{a}_{2}}{{S}_{4}}}}\,\] \[{{(-C{{H}_{2}}-C{{H}_{2}}-S-S-S-S-)}_{n}}\] Used in the manufacture of hoses and tank lining, engine gasket and rocket fuel.
(vi) Silicone rubber \[\underset{\text{Chlorosilanes}}{\mathop{Cl-\overset{C{{H}_{3}}\,\,\,\,\,\,\,\,}{\mathop{\underset{Cl\,\,}{\mathop{\underset{|}{\overset{|}{\mathop{S}}}\,i-}}\,C{{H}_{3}}}}\,}}\,\] \[{{\left( -O-\underset{C{{H}_{3}}}{\overset{C{{H}_{3}}}{\mathop{\underset{|}{\overset{|}{\mathop{S}}}\,i-\,}}}\, \right)}_{n}}\] Silicon rubber
(vii) Polyurethane rubber \[\underset{\text{Ethylene glycol}}{\mathop{HOC{{H}_{2}}-C{{H}_{2}}OH}}\,\] and \[\underset{\text{Ethylene di-isocyanate}}{\mathop{\overset{O}{\mathop{\overset{|\,|}{\mathop{C}}\,}}\,=N-CH=CH-N=C=O}}\,\]   In the manufacture of fibre. Paints and heat insulator.

 

Plastics and resin

Name of polymer Abbreviat-ion Starting materials (monomers) Nature of polymer Properties Applications
(i) Polyolefines          
(a) Polyethylene or polyethene LDPE (Low density polyethene) \[C{{H}_{2}}=C{{H}_{2}}\] Low density homopolymer (branched) chain growth. Transparent, moderate tensile strength, high toughness. Packing material carry bags, insulation for electrical wires and cables.
  HDPE (high density polyethene) \[C{{H}_{2}}=C{{H}_{2}}\] High density homopolymer (linear) chain growth. Transluscent, chemically inert, greater tensile strength, toughness. Manufacture of buckets, tubs, house ware, pipes, bottles and toys.
(b) Polypropylene or polypropene PP \[C{{H}_{3}}CH=C{{H}_{2}}\] Homopolymer, linear, chain growth. Harder and stronger than polyethene. Packing of textiles and foods, liners for bags, heat shrinkage wraps, carpet fibres, ropes, automobile mouldings, stronger pipes and bottles.
(c) Polystyrene or Styron or styrofoam   \[{{C}_{6}}{{H}_{5}}CH=C{{H}_{2}}\] Homopolymer, linear, chain growth Transparent Plastic toys, house hold wares, radio and television bodies, refrigerator linings.
(ii) Polyhaloolefines          
(a) Polyvinyl chloride PVC \[\underset{\text{Vinyl chloride}}{\mathop{C{{H}_{2}}=CH-Cl}}\,\] Homopolymer chains growth Thermoplastic (i) Plasticised with high boiling esters PVC used in rain coats, hand bags, shower curtains, fabrics, shoe soles, vinyl flooring (ii) Good electrical insulator (iii) Hose pipes.
(b) Polytetrafluoroet-hylene or Teflon PTFE \[{{F}_{2}}C=C{{F}_{2}}\] Homopolymer, high melting point Flexible and inert to solvents boiling acids even aqua regia. Stable upto 598 K. (i) For nonstick utensiles coating (ii) Making gaskets, pump packings valves, seals, non lubricated bearings.
(c) Polymonochlorotri-fluroroethylene PCTFE \[ClFC=C{{F}_{2}}\] Homopolymer Less resistant to heat and chemicals due to presence of chlorine atoms. Similar to those of teflon.
(iii) Formaldehyde resins          
(a) Phenol formaldehyde resin or Bakelite   Phenol and formaldehyde Copolymer, step growth Thermosetting polymer, hard and brittle (i) With low degree polymerisation as bindings glue for wood varnishes, lacquers. (ii) With high degree polymerisation for combs, for mica table tops, fountain pen barrels electrical goods (switches and plugs).
(b) Melamine formaldehyde resin   Melamine and formaldehyde Copolymer, step growth Thermosetting polymer, hard but not so breakable. Non-breakable crockery.
(iv) Polyacrylates          
(a) Polymethacrylate (lucite, acrylite and plexiglass and perspex) PMMA \[C{{H}_{2}}=\overset{C{{H}_{3}}\,}{\mathop{\overset{|}{\mathop{C}}\,-C}}\,OOC{{H}_{3}}\] Copolymer Hard transparent, excellent light transmission, optical clarity better than glass takes up colours. Lenses light covers lights, shades signboards transparent domes skylight aircraft window, dentures and plastic jewellery.
(b) Polyethylacrylate   \[C{{H}_{2}}=CH-COO{{C}_{2}}{{H}_{5}}\] Copolymer Tough, rubber like product  

 

Fibre

Name of polymer Abbreviation Starting materials Nature of polymer Properties Applications
(i) Polysters (a) Terylene or Dacron or mylar PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) \[\underset{\text{Ethylene glycol or Ethane -1, 2-diol}}{\mathop{HO-C{{H}_{2}}-C{{H}_{2}}-OH}}\,\]     Copolymer, step growth linear condensation polymer Fibre crease resistant, low moisture absorption, not damaged by pests like moths etc. For wash and wear fabrics, tyre cords seat belts and sails.
(b) Glyptal or alkyd resin   \[\underset{\text{Ethylene glycol}}{\mathop{HO-C{{H}_{2}}-C{{H}_{2}}-OH}}\,\] and   Copolymer, linear step growth condensation polymer Thermoplastic, dissolves in suitable solvents and solutions on evaporation leaves a tough but not flexible film. Paints and lacquers.
(ii) Polyamides          
(a) Nylon-66   \[\underset{\text{Adipic acid}}{\mathop{HO-\overset{O}{\mathop{\overset{|\,|}{\mathop{C}}\,}}\,{{[C{{H}_{2}}]}_{4}}\overset{O}{\mathop{\overset{|\,|}{\mathop{C}}\,}}\,-OH}}\,\] and \[\underset{\text{Hexamethyllenediamine}}{\mathop{{{H}_{2}}N-{{[C{{H}_{2}}]}_{6}}-N{{H}_{2}}}}\,\] Copolymer, linear, step growth condensation polymer Thermoplastic high tensile strength abrasion resistant. Textile fabrics, bristles for brushes etc.
(b) Nylon-610   \[\underset{\text{Hexamethyllene}\,\,\text{diamine}}{\mathop{{{H}_{2}}N-{{[C{{H}_{2}}]}_{6}}-N{{H}_{2}}}}\,\] and \[\underset{\text{Sebacic acid}}{\mathop{HOOC{{[C{{H}_{2}}]}_{8}}COOH}}\,\] Copolymer, linear, step growth Thermoplastic, high tensile strength, abrasion resistant (i) Textile fabrics, carpets, bristles for brushes etc. (ii) Substitute of metals in bearings. (iii) Gears elastic hosiery.
(c) Nylon-6 or Perlon           Homopolymer, linear Thermoplastic high tensile strength abrasion resistant. Mountaineering ropes, tyre cords, fabrics.
(iii) Polyacryloni-trile or orlon or acrilon PAN \[C{{H}_{2}}=CH-CN\] Copolymer Hard, horney and high melting materials. Orlon, arcrilon used for making clothes, carpets blankets and preparation of other polymers.

 

  • Copolymer of acrylonitrile (40%) and vinyl chloride (60%) is called dynel it is used in hair wigs.

 

  • Artificial silk is the term given to fibres derived from cellulose. The most important process for the production of artificial silk is viscose process. The difference between natural and artificial silk is natural silk contain nitrogen while artificial silk may not have nitrogen. Natural silk on burning gives a smell of burning hair and shrinks into a ball of cinder while artificial silk gives a thread of ash.

 



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