Category : 3rd Class
This lesson will help you to: -
Real Life Examples
a horde of ravens etc.
QUICK CONCEPT REVIEW
Birds and their Habitats
Birds live in different habitats.
Forests, farmlands, lakes, rivers, coasts etc., all have their own characteristic birds.
The habitats of birds in our country (India) can be divided into the following broad types:-
(a) In forest areas
(b) Near water bodies
(c) In farms
BIRDS AND THEIR MOVEMENT: MIGRATION
For example. Birds such as ducks and geese along with other birds come to wetlands in September-October and leave in March- April.
BIRDS AND THEIR HOME-NESTS
BIRDS AND THEIR BEAUTIFUL FEATHERS
(a) The small, light and fluffy feathers which cover their body and keep them warm, are called down feathers.
(b) The long and stiff feathers present on their wings and tails are called flight feathers. They help the birds to fly.
Birds shed their feathers from time to time and new feathers grow in their place.
BIRDS AND THEIR BEAKS
Misconcept: Birds have teeth in their beaks that they use to tear the food.
Concept: Birds do not have teeth.
Misconcept: Bird’s legs have “knees” that bend the bottom of their legs backwards (similar to human’s knees).
Concept: Bird’s legs have “ankles” that bend the bottom of their legs forward.
Misconcept: parent birds will abandon a nest if it has been touched by humans.
Concept: Birds may abandon a nest if humans approach a nest too often because other predators may be led to the nest by the scent.
Misconcept: Birds migrate because it’s cold (to avoid freezing).
Concept: Birds migrate toward areas of increasing or higher resources like nesting sites, food etc. Both environmental (temperature, day light) and genetic factors are involved in migration.
Misconcept: Penguins are only black and white.
Concept: Some penguin species are black and white, but others have shades of black, white, greys, blues, yellows, and oranges species may have red eyes, brightly coloured feathers, bright orange beaks, or pink feet.
A cone shaped beak is found in many birds such as finches and grosbeaks. It is a strong beak used for cracking seeds.
Thin, slender, pointed beaks are found mainly in insect eaters. They are used to pick insects off leaves, twigs, and bark. Warbler is a good example.
Woodpeckers have strong beaks which taper to the tip, forming a chisel for pecking holes in trees for food or nests. Most feed on insects which live under the bark.
Hummingbirds have long, tubular beak that resemble straws, which they use to sip nectar from flowers.
Mergansers, specialized for eating fish, have sharp tooth-like structures on the edge of the beak to hold fish tightly.
Hawks, owls, and other birds which catch and kill live prey, have sharp, "hooked" beaks. These are used to bite the skull or neck and also to tear the body into pieces small enough to swallow.
The edges of a Mallard?s beak are fringed to strain plants, seeds, and small animals from mud and water.
Beaks which are flat and wide at the base are found in birds which catch insects in flight, such as flycatchers. These birds also often have "whiskers," which are actually modified feathers, at the corners of the mouth, which effectively widens the mouth opening, allowing more effective capture of prey.
BIRDS - THEIR FEET AND CLAWS
Song Birds or Perching Birds (warblers, thrushes, wrens, etc.) Have independent, flexible toes, with one pointing backwards, ideal for grasping perches. When perching birds sit, a tendon on the backside of the ankle automatically flexes locking their toes around the branch. With feet locked, sleeping birds don't fall. As the bird stands up its feet releases.
Woodpeckers have two toes pointing forwards and two backwards; for climbing up, down, and sideways on tree trunks.
Water Birds such as ducks have webbing between their toes for swimming. GULLS also have feet similar to these. This is the reason why they don't sink while walking in the soft sand or mud near the water's edge.
Wading Birds. The long toes of herons, which spreads the bird's weight over a large surface area, facilitates walking on soft surfaces near the water's edge (where wading birds like to eat).
Raptors such as hawks, eagles, and owls use large claws (called talons) to capture, kill, and carry prey with their feet.
Pheasants and chickens use their strong feet to scratch the dirt and leaf litter to uncover seeds and insects.
Strong-legged flightless birds, like the cassowary, protect themselves by kicking with their powerful feet and sharp claws.
Real Life Examples
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