10th Class Science Metals and Non-metals Extraction of Metals

Extraction of Metals

Category : 10th Class

*       Extraction of Metals


Most of the metals occur in the earth's crust in the combined state. It is because they are reactive and combine with elements like oxygen, carbon, sulphur etc. Noble metals like gold, platinum etc. exist in free state as they are very less reactive. Minerals are the compounds or the combined form in which a metal occurs in the earth's crust. Ores are those minerals from which metals can be extracted conveniently and profitably. All ores are minerals, but all minerals are not ores


*          Some Common Ores  

Sr.No. Elements Ores Formula
1. Iron Haematite
2. Iron Magnetite
3. Aluminium Bauxite
4. Tin Cassiterite
5. Zinc Calamine
6. Mercury Cinnabar
7. Lead Galena
8. Zinc Zinc blende
9. Copper Copper Pyrite


*          Gangue

The unwanted impurities like sand, mud, stones etc present in the ore is called gangue or matrix.

  • Flux : It is the substance added to the ore to remove gangue.

Slag : Flux combines with the infusible impurities to convert them into a fusible substance called slag.

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