10th Class English Grammar (All Topics) Time & Tense

Time & Tense

Category : 10th Class

*         Time & Tense

 

Introduction: Tense is that form of a verb which shows the time and state of an action on event. It comes from Latin word tempus, meaning time. Tense is the change of form in a verb to express the time of an action. There are three principal tenses.  

(i) The Present Tense: describes an action in the present tense.  

 

 

I go. He runs. They are walking.  

(ii) The Past Tense: describes an action in the past time.  

 

 

I went. He ran. They were playing.  

(iii) The Future Tense: describes an action in the future time.  

 

 

I shall go. He will run. They will be walking.

Each of these principal tenses has four forms - Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect and Perfect Continuous.

We shall now discuss them one by one.    

 

*         The Present Tense  

 

*            Present Indefinite Tense  

Construction:

(i) Subject +  +.....

(ii) Subject + is / are / am + complement

Usage:

1.       To express any permanent state or work at present.

2.       To express any present habit.

3.       To express any definite future course of action.  

 

*            Present Imperfect/Continuous Tense

Construction: Subject + is / are / am +  (Verb + ing) +.....

Usage:

1.       To express any course of action that is ongoing.

2.       To express any course of action that is going on presently, but not necessary that the action is ongoing at this moment.

3.       To express any definite programme about to occur in the near future.  

 

*            Present Perfect Tense

Construction: Subject + have / has +  + .....

Usage:

1. To express any course of action that has completed just now.

2. To express any course of action that has taken place before, but its importance still exists.

3. To express a course of action that has begun in the past, but is still ongoing.  

 

*            Perfect Continuous Tense

Construction: Subject+ have/has + been +  (Verb + ing) + ..... (for/since+ time)

1. To express a course of action that has begun in the past and is yet to get completed.

2. To express a course of action that was ongoing till a few moments ago, but its effect is still prevailing.    

 

*         The Past Tense  

 

*            Past Indefinite Tense  

Construction:

(i) Subject + +.....

(ii) Subject + was / were + complement

Usage:

1. To express a course of action that has happened in the past.

2. To express the nature of the past.

3. To express the unfulfilled wish / condition / desire, etc. in the present, / wish / If/As if/ As though / It is time / It is high time, etc. is used.  

 

*            Past Imperfect/ Continuous Tense  

Construction: Subject + was / were +  (Verb + ing) + .....

Usage:

1. To express an action that was going on in the past.

2. To express two actions occurred at the same time in the past.

3. To express any gradual development of something or any incident that makes laugh, occurred in the past.

4. To express the nature of a person in. the past, which caused others to feel rude, harsh, etc.  

 

*            Past Perfect Tense  

Construction: Subject + had + .....

Usage:

1. When two incidents are stated that took place in the past, past perfect tense is used to express the first incident and past indefinite tense for the second incident.

2. To express any unfulfilled wish / condition / desire, etc. of the past, past perfect tense is used with / wish / If/As if / As though, etc.

3. If the reporting verb in direct narration is in past tense and the reported speech is in present perfect or past indefinite tense, then in indirect narration, past perfect tense is used in the reported speech.  

 

*            Past Perfect Continuous Tense  

Construction: Subject + had + been +  (Verb + ing) + .....for / since + Time.

Usage: To express an action that began in the past and continued for some time.        

 

*         The Future Tense  

 

*            Future Indefinite Tense

Construction: Subject + shall / will +  + .....

Usage:

To express an action that will happen in future.  

 

*            Future Imperfect/Continuous Tense

Construction: Subject + shall / will + have +  (Verb + ing) + .....

Usage:

To express a course of action that is going on at some future time.  

 

*            Future Perfect Tense

Construction: Subject + shall / will + have + + .....

Usage:

To express an action that will be completed at some point of time in the future.  

Note: The Future Perfect Continuous Tense is no longer in practical use, so it has been not been discussed here.  

Other Topics



LIMITED OFFER HURRY UP! OFFER AVAILABLE ON ALL MATERIAL TILL TODAY ONLY!

You need to login to perform this action.
You will be redirected in 3 sec spinner

Free
Videos