10th Class English Grammar (All Topics) Determiners

Determiners

Category : 10th Class

*         Determiners

 

Introduction: Determiners are words like my, this, his and any, etc. They are grammatically similar. They modify nouns and precede them. They all come at the beginning of noun phrases, and usually we cannot use more than one determiner in the same noun phrase.  

 

Kinds of Determiners  

 

*            Articles

The words o, an, and are generally called articles and sometimes classed as a separate part of speech. In function, however, they can be grouped with the demonstrative adjectives that are used to point things out rather than describe them.  

*           Definite Article

The is called the definite article because it points out a particular object or class.  

 

 

This is the book I was talking about.

The dodo bird is extinct.  

 

*           Indefinite

Article A is called the indefinite article because it points out an object, but not any particular specimen.  

 

 

 

a book, a dog, a lawn mower  

The indefinite article has two forms:

(i) A is used before words beginning with a consonant sound or an aspirated h: a car, a lamb, a hope, a habit, a hotel

(ii) An is used before words beginning with a vowel sound: an ape, an image, an untruth, an honorable man      

 

*            Demonstrative Determines

Demonstrative determiners are words that show which person or thing is being referred to.  

 

 

This is my brother.

Here, 'this' is a demonstrative determiner.

The demonstratives in English are - this, that, these and those  

Use of demonstratives

Demonstratives differ according to:

Distance: near or far

or

Number: singular or plural Here are the main distinctions:

This modifies or refers to singular nouns that are near to the speaker.

That modifies or refers to singular nouns that are far from the speaker.

These modifies or refers to plural nouns that are near to the speaker.

Those modifies or refers to plural nouns that are far from the speaker.  

 

*            Possessive Determiners

Possessive determiners are - my, your, his, her, its, our and their. We use possessive adjective to describe or limit the meaning of a noun, a pronoun, or a clause. We use these words before nouns to say who something belongs to. Both possessive determiners and possessive pronouns express a relation, often the fact that someone has something or that something belongs to someone.  

                                       Subject Pronouns                            Possessive Adjectives

Singular                               I                                                            my

                                             You                                                       your                                                                          

                                             He                                                         his                                                

                                             She                                                       her                                                        

                                             It                                                           its

Plural                                  We                                                       our                                                

                                             You                                                       your

                                             They                                                     their  

 

*            Numeral Determiners

Numeral determiners are a kind of numeral adjectives which can be in the following ways:  

                                                                                   Numerals
Definite Indefinite Distributive
One, Two, three, first Some, many, few, all Each, every, either
Second, third, both, etc. Several Neither

 

*           Definite Numeral

Determiners In such cases, the exact number is stated in the sentence.  

 

 

There are forty-five students in the class.

He has five books. Both Raja and Rahim are my friends.

The first boy in the second row is my brother.  

 

*            Quantitative Determiners

Quantitative determiners are commonly used before abstract and mass nouns. They are words which provide information about the quantity of a noun. The list of quantitative determiners are - some, any, few, little, no, more, much, many, each, every, both, all, enough, half, little, a little, the little, whole, less, etc.  

 

 

There is some water in the bottle.

There is not any juice in the jug.

We saw few students going to the school.

He has little knowledge.

There is no truth in Pakistan about Kashmir.

He has put in more effort to find a job.

Much work is yet to be done.

He has many friends.

Each of the boys has done his duty.

Every boy needs to be guided.

Both the guest and the host are honest.

All the students attended the function.

Enough has been done to save the plant.

He completed half of the work.

He has little knowledge.

Add o little sugar in the tea.

I have spent the little money I had.

The whole area is under police protection.

You devote less time to practice.  

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