Category : CTET
Posted by Study Adda Mon, November 21st 2011
Noble Awards 2011
There are more than 300 peace prizes in the world. None is in any way as well-known and as highly respected as the Nobel Peace Prize. The Oxford Dictionary of Twentieth Century World History, to cite just one example, states that the Nobel Peace Prize is “The world’s most prestigious prize awarded for the preservation of peace. “The Nobel Prizes arc annual international awards bestowed by Scandinavian committees in recognition of cultural and scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, established the prizes in 1895. The prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace were first awarded in 1901. The Peace Prize is awarded in Oslo, Norway, while the other prizes are awarded in Stockholm, Sweden. Each Nobel Prize is regarded as the most prestigious award in its field. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Nobel Prize in Physics, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet awards the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. The Swedish Academy grants the Nobel Prize in Literature. The Nobel Peace Prize is not awarded by a Swedish organisation but by the Norwegian Nobel Committee.
History of Nobel Prizes
Alfred Nobel was a chemist, engineer, arid inventor. In 1894 Nobel purchased the Bofors iron and steel mill, which he made into a major armaments manufacturer. Nobel also invented ballistic, a precursor to many smokeless military explosives, especially the British smokeless powder cordite. Nobel patent infringement lawsuit over cordite. Nobel amassed a fortune during his lifetime. Most of his wealth was from his 355 inventions, of which dynamite is the most famous. In 1888, Alfred was astonished to read his own obituary, titled 'The merchant of death is dead', in a French newspaper. The article disconcerted Nobel and made him apprehensive about how he would be remembered. This inspired him to change his will. On 10 December 1896 Alfred Nobel died in his villa in San Remo, Italy from a cerebral haemorrhage. He was 63 years old. To widespread astonishment, Nobel's last will specified that his fortune be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the “greatest benefit on mankind” in physics, chemistry, peace, physiology or medicine, and literature. On 27 November 1895, Alfred Nobel signed his last will and testament, giving the largest share of his fortune to a series of prize, the Nobel Prizes, As described in Nobel's will, one part was dedicated to “the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses”.
why are the individuals and organisations awarded with a Nobel Prize called Nobel Laureates?
The word ‘Laureate' refers to being signified by the laurel wreath. In Greek mythology, the god Apollo is represented wearing a laurel wreath on his head. A laurel wreath is a circular crown made of branches and leaves of the bay laurel (In latin: Laurus nobilis). In ancient Greek laurel wreaths were awarded to victors as a sign of honour - both in athletic competitions and in poetic meets.
Ø The first woman 10 win a Nobel Prize was Marie Curie, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903 with her husband, Pierre Curie, and Henri Becquerel. Curie also won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1911.
Ø Each prize consists of a medal, personal diploma and a prize amount. The Nobel Prize amount for 2011 is sec at Swedish kroner (SEK) 10 million per full Nobel Prize.
Ø The oldest Nobel Laureate 10 date is Leonid Hurwicz, who was 90 years old when he was awarded the 2007 Prize in Economic Sciences.
Ø Between 1901 and 3011, 549 Nobel Prizes and Prizes in Economic Sciences have been awarded, S09 to men and only W to women!
Ø Two Nobel Laureates Jean-Paul Same, who was awarded the 1964 Nobel Prize in Literature, and Le Due Tho, who was awarded the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize, declined the Nobel Prize.
Ø Three Nobel Laureates-German pacifist and journalist Carl von Ossietzky, Burmese politician Aung San Suu Kyi and Chinese human rights activist Liu Xiaobo were under arrest at the time of the award.
Ø Despite having been nominated five times in 1957, 1938, 1939, 1947 and, finally, shortly before he was assassinated in January 1948, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi never won a Nobel Prize.
Ø All Nobel Prizes are awarded in Stockholm, Sweden, except: for the Nobel Peace Prize, which is awarded in Oslo, Norway. When Alfred until 1906 when Norway became an independent kingdom.
Ø In 1974, it was stipulated chat a Nobel Prize cannot be awarded posthumously, unless death has occurred after the announcement of the Nobel Prize. The Nobel Prize has only been awarded posthumously twice: to Dag Hammarskjold who was awarded Nobel Peace Prize in 1961 and Erik Axel Karlfeldt who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in1931.
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